Fat Loss and Fitness With Magical Herbs and Secret Spices

Fat loss and optimum health are much easier and long lasting when you add some of natures gift to your daily diet. Herbs and spices are not only tasty but they offer many body and life enhancing benefits that often go ignored.

Potent plant compounds in herbs like nutmeg, cinnamon, turmeric and rosemary have powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties that scientists suggest might help do everything from stabilize blood sugar levels and protect your heart to improve mood and enhance brain function … and even fight cancer cells.

Although most of the ‘official’ research is preliminary, and in mice & rats, it expands our thinking of what most people see as ‘flavoring meals’ can do.

Chili Powder — Though it seems odd that capsaicin, the substance that gives chili peppers and chili powder their fiery heat, would act as a pain reliever, it has indeed been used for years as a topical cream to help people with arthritis, shingles and psoriasis. Experts suspect capsaicin works by first stimulating pain receptors via the skin and then shutting them down.

Now, scientists think this principle can help inside the body too. By combining the anesthetic agent, viscous lidocaine, with capsaicin, Harvard researchers were able to block pain receptors, yet leave touch and motor sensors perfectly intact and functional, resulting in controlled numbness. Though tested only on rats so far, researchers are confident the finding could eventually transform the way surgery is performed.

In lab studies, capsaicin has also been shown to kill prostate cancer cells. One BIG reason for men to keep chili powder on hand at all times… in the kitchen, that is.

Cinnamon — One of my daily favorites… In addition to antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, cinnamon is now hailed for its power to improve insulin sensitivity and reduce blood glucose levels. It’s also been shown to lower cholesterol and triglyceride blood levels.

Even meager amounts of cinnamon may be highly effective. One study showed that the equivalent of just one-half teaspoon of cinnamon powder twice daily before meals lowered glucose and cholesterol levels. Another found that the equivalent of a teaspoon a day lowered fasting glucose in people with diabetes. HINT: put it in your oatmeal with a tablespoon of ground organic flax seeds.

Curry Powder — The excitement behind curry centers on its primary ingredient, turmeric, which contains curcumin, a powerful polyphenol with antioxidant properties. Curcumin gives this amazing spice its distinctive flavor and vivid yellow color.

In a study in Endocrinology in July, Columbia University researchers reported that curcumin reduced inflammation and lessened the chances that obese mice would develop type 2 diabetes. Additionally, in the mice that did contract the disease, curcumin still decreased insulin resistance, enhanced blood sugar level profiles, decreased body-fat and increased lean muscle mass.

More exciting studies target heart disease and cancer. Canadian scientists gave curcumin to mice with enlarged hearts. Not only did it lower the incidence of heart failure (a common outcome of an enlarged heart), but it reversed the condition, restoring heart function. Curcumin also has the ability to stop tumor growth and promote tumor cell breakdown, particularly in colorectal cancer cells.


Earlier animal research suggests curcumin may help prevent rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and Crohn’s disease. Its extract blocks bone breakdown, reducing the risk for osteoporosis.

Now, scientists are analyzing curcumin and how it may affect Alzheimer’s disease. In India — where people eat two to four grams (about one teaspoon) of turmeric daily—Alzheimer rates are one-quarter what they are in the U.S. All of these little tidbits of evidence are why you may want to add a some curry powder to your sauteed veggies or your stir fried chicken or fish.

It may be a stretch going from mice to men, of course, but it makes all the sense in the world – when you realize that most medications are created from various plants around the world. Currently, ten studies are underway in humans.

Rosemary — Rosemary is a robust herb that adds oomph to dishes, but may also smother cancer? Scientists think it does… at least a concentrated extract of the herb might. Some researchers believe rosemary can block dangerous carcinogenic compounds called heterocyclic amines (HCA) from forming during cooking.

A Kansas State University food scientist, motivated by a study showing that marinades made with rosemary, thyme and other spices could cut HCA in grilled steak by 87%, tried rosemary extract alone… And what would you know? The rosemary cleared out any trace of HCA in the grilled hamburgers, and without imparting an overpowering rosemary taste.

Researchers credit phenols with protective antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory effects. Add this ‘pine-needle looking’ herb to dressings and meat marinades.

Saffron — This spice is what turns rice yellow in the Spanish dish, ‘paella’. Both the petal and sought-after stamen of saffron have shown potent antidepressant effects in several studies. In fact, a few studies found that 30 milligrams of saffron was just as effective as commonly prescribed fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem) and imipramine (Tofranil) for treating mild-to-moderate depression. Other research suggests saffron has anticarcinogenic properties. You can even add this to stir fried vegetables and various meats.

Ancient societies have been using herbs and spices to prevent and treat ailments for thousands of years, but only recently have Western scientists begun to test, validate and substantiate some of these claims, as well as discover new benefits, uses and applications.

Although much of the research has been in animals so far, and many studies use extracts, concentrates and supplements in amounts which may be challenging to consume, fresh or dried – researchers feel the need to study these herbs and spices in humans in everyday amounts before ‘formal’ recommendations can be made regarding the prevention or treatment of various conditions and illnesses.

With that being stated… There’s no good reason to wait for a bureaucratic, ‘official statement’ of proof or approval.

Just let your logic and common sense tell you there are unquestionable benefits to be gained by enjoying healthful and flavorful doses of powerful herbs and spices in your daily nutrition.

This is just another health promoting, life enhancing gift from ‘the universe’ – it’s your choice to use it or not.



Source by Joey Atlas

The Most Popular Toys In The Galaxy Are Action Figures?


Action figures are becoming very popular with each passing year. Since the very first action figure was created in the 1950’s, action figures have gained immense popularity. With the very first G.I. Joe action figure created, the world of action figures snowballed into a universe of collectibles. Long after the first G.I. Joe action figure was brought to life, Star Wars was born and the action figure world would never be the same. Kenner had spawned some of the greatest collectible action figures on the planet from the movie Star Wars. Action figures come in all sizes, but the most common size is 6-7″. Other popular sizes include 3″, 3 3/4″, 12″, and 18″. Plastic or vinyl is what most action figures are made from. Each figure (most, usually) comes loaded with accessories. Accessories may include guns, knives, weapons, interchangeable parts, etc. Clamshell, boxed, or carded are all methods of packaging that action figures come packaged in. As the popularity of action figures increases, there are new manufacturers that pop up every year. Some manufacturers include: NECA, McFarlane Toys, and Jakks Pacific. NECA licenses tons of movies, musicians, video games, and much more. McFarlane Toys also licenses many films, as well as television shows, and musicians alike. Part of McFarlane Toys strength is in their sports picks series. These include figures from many pro sports including NFL, NBA, NFL, and NHL. There are many themes that behold the action figure universe. Themes such as The Dark Knight, Scarface, Terminator, Alien, Predator, and Planet of the Apes. With the popularity of video games, toy manufacturers have jumped into licensing hit video games such as Halo 3, God of War, Guitar Hero, Hitman, Tomb Raider, Castlevania, Call of Duty, Gears of War, and so many more. There are people who purchase action figures with intention of displaying them and there are those who collect them. Depending on how serious of a collector you are, collecting action figures can be easy and fun or your collecting needs can be very tedious work. The rarity of your action figure and the condition of the packaging that the figure is packaged in are determining factors as to its value. If you are looking to ride the action figure wave all the way to the top, toy conventions are a great way to check out the latest figures or to network and meet people. Plenty of toy conventions are waiting for you to check out. Just to name a few, Comic Con in San Diego is the largest. Wizard World and American International Toy Fair are big conventions, as well. So, start collecting something new and exciting and welcome yourself to the wonderful world of action figures.


Source by Steve Ripsky

Improve Your Law Of Attraction Powers With This Simple Technique

An Introduction to The Law of Attraction

The law of attraction which states that anything that we think about and focu on in our minds we draw directly into our reality. The law of attraction tries to show you how to take control of your thoughts, to focus them in a positive way, to attract positive things into your life.

Can you imagine being able to focus on something and have it come true, to have something manifest into your life just by changing your thoughts – well this is the basic principle of the law of attraction – whether it is money, physical items, success in business or personal goals, or even attracting a romantic partner into your life.

Why A lot of people Fail

This may sound brilliant, but generally the law of attraction is easier said than done. While there are plenty of cases of instantaneous results or massive successes with the law of attraction, typically it will take a little while for the manifestations to build at best, at worst people see little or no results and give up – perhaps you have been wanting to manifest your desires into your life but have experienced very little results?

Often people try out a variety of conscious approaches and make physical steps toward their goals; saying positive affirmations, visualizing, making wish lists, creating vision boards, etc – this is all good, and just about any / all of these methods can bring you results, nevertheless the important element which people neglect is making sure their subconscious mind is aligned for success too.

Often they will do all of these conscious acts, yet there are doubts, limiting, and negative beliefs deep inside their unconscious mind which holds them back, and prevents their manifestations forming for real.

The Solution

The law of attraction is quite an abstract concept and it is no wonder we have these doubts, but if you don’t take steps to remove them then they will really limit your success.

This is where subliminal messaging can help. They specifically focus on these types of detrimental thoughts and feelings, and limiting self beliefs, and then replace them for constructive self beliefs and line up your mind to your conscious law of attraction goals. This ensures you have the best possible chance of success with the law of attraction and makes you more likely to manifest your dreams into reality.

To expand on this a little subliminal recordings work in 2 main ways:

  • First of all they help you make sure that you completely believe in the law of attraction inside and out – this is a basic requirement – essential for success with any area of the law of attraction.
  • Secondly they will focus your unconscious mind to your precise attraction goals, so you’ll be focused on the precise things you need to attract more than ever.

Start today with subliminal messages and make sure you stand the best possible chance of being successful with the law of attraction.

It depends largely on your unique circumstances and goals, but you can find various albums you could try which range from the classic law of attraction album, to a more niche and unique album, something more targeted such as the money attraction album.

Do You Want to Improve Your Law Of Attraction Powers With Some Simple Yet Very Effective Technique?
Click Here: ==> Improve Law of Attraction With Subliminal Messages



Source by Watson Frup N

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Source by bestplacefaq

What is the best place for asthmatics to live?

More Best Place please visit : http://www.bestplaceask.com

What is the best place for an outdoor nuptials contained by Palm Beach Co, to be precise inexpensive?
Nice beach or garden-like setting Check out John D. MacArthur beach state park, I am not sure in the region of their policies about weddings but the place is beautiful and it cannot be hugely expensive. I know they do a lot…

What is the best place for an outside matrimony contained by wisconsin?
Door County is beautiful, and there are several resorts that will allow you to hold the nuptials outside. Lake Geneva has some great places, too, including getting married on a boat on the lake. Source(s): http://www.premierbridewisconsin.com/lis… dont move about outside…have the Wedding in Eric’s subterranean vault….

What is the best place for an overnight canoe trip surrounded by inside VA?
I want to go on a one night canoe trip. I hold done a few sections of the James, my favorite is the Balcony Falls run. If I did this section again, would it be better to start above it, or turn past it in…

What is the best place for andhra food surrounded by banglore?
Getting good andhra food in banglore is unbelievably very diffucult these days? What are the best places for it within banglore? You can go to Amravati for Andhra food. This is near Cauvery Emporium, M G Road.. i dont know about andhra food, but if u want some…

What is the best place for associates to live??
i have to write an essay in German where on earth the best place for people to live but i cant think of one massively well. I mean America be my first choice but im not sure.. Norway. Norway. The United Nations ranked Norway as the world’s best nation to live…

What is the best place for asthmatics to live?
in th usa. In a plastic bubble with a straight feed of oxygen. I species of can’t compare to that pdcr777 guy but I would suggest places that are not congested and polluted like New York because of the cars/building gases but perchance a low population town where there’s not that…

What is the best place for attractiveness treatments contained by Leigh-on-Sea?
It’s funny you should ask, I know a lady who does all mode of cosmetic treatments in Leigh on Sea in Kings Road. What sort of treatments are you interested surrounded by. Email me if you like: GuineaChatters(a)aol.com – HTH : )

What is the best place for BBQ surrounded by Kansas City, MO?
I love KC BBQ and want to try more when i go next time… those race really know how to eat, man! I went to KC for a ballgame near my son and to check out some BBQ. We tried about 8 different places while there for a week….

What is the best place for BBQ surrounded by San diego CA?
Phills BBQ by far no where on earth. I am from Alabama and have been looking for fitting BBQ out here and there isn’t crap. I live in San Diego too, lucklessly You haven’t lived until you experience Phil’s BBQ. Phil is from Chicago…

What is the best place for best makeup help out?
well I have never have anyone older to show me how to put on makeup correctly. my older sister and mom do not wear makeup. Im going to be a sophomore subsequent year in college next year and I am somewhat embarrased to ask for help from friends or a store….

What is the best place for blog?
I want to blog, but I want to blog in a hot or famous place, can you relay me? Is myspace or xanga, windows live ok? thanks I similar to blogger and wordpress. There are lots of others out there – but if you have a apposite tech head on your shoulders your…

What is the best place for blogging?
My blog log I think orkut.com, I like it wand am sure that you will resembling it to. But even bloggers.com is also good, well its relatively complicated. Am sure that you will like orkut too, try it out ! Source(s): www.orkut.com that depends, what’s important to you? Do you want…

What is the Best Place for Blue Crab In Maryland?
I need a really good place, I hold in-laws from another country that also live close to the sea and eat angelic seafood. So I want to impress them with Marylands Best. So don’t go cheap on me, comfort me out. whoever told you Phillips isn’t from Maryland…

What is the best place for boxing?
what is the best place for self defense in sydney, i want others as well, such as taekwondo and ju jitsu, kickboxing? etc. should i do 2 at one time? and which is appropriate for me? im 147 cm, 12 years old. just place the best bet 😀 answer asap plz. Well,…

What is the best place for break? Where enjoy you go for your favorite break?
I GOTTA KNOWWWWWWWW. Last summer my house went to an indoor water park call Splash Universe in Dundee, Michigan and we all have a really great time! I would recommend that if you’re looking for an awesome weekend that’s not too pricey. Source(s): http://riverrun.splashuniverse.com/…

What is the best place for breakfast within the downtown Chicago nouns?
I know of one good place I went to, it be called The West Egg my family eat there every time we go to Chicago. I be wondering if there are any other places we can go to enjoy good breakfast. When are you going to chicago? Lou…

What is the best place for brunch surrounded by Gaithersburg, MD?
We’re organizing this for people who are contained by Gaithersburg from out of town. I’ve found nice places in DC, but that’s too far to go lacking people knowing the area very well. We’re looking for traditional brunch food, such as pancakes, waffles, eggs, bacon, etc, and also some lunch…

What is the best place for BRUNCH surrounded by Glen Burnie /Annapolis nouns?
Home. At your table. Meals created for you by your mom. Hope this helps. i used to live there but dont remember the area particularly well Here are some suggestions: Rock fish http://www.rockfishmd.com/restaurant.htm… Carrol’s Creek http://www.carrolscreek.com/ Cafe Normandie http://www.restaurant.com/microsite.asp?……

What is the best place for brunch surrounded by the East Village? If you hold to ask where on earth to be exact.please don’t answer
Holy Basil Thai restaurant on Second Avenue, near 10th. In this weather especially, try Yaffa Cafe, very cute outdoor garden and the price can’t be flay! Plus it’s just an experience, service can be sketchy,…

What is the best place for buying books/textbooks online?
I’m aware of half.com and Barnes and Noble, but I’m wondering what sources you use that offer the most efficacy. Your college probably have a bookstore website. i buy mine on amazon =) Best place for textbook would be http://www.bookmallonline.com For textbooks, I like http://www.amazon.com. For…

What is the best place for buying iphone within Dubai?
Please mention the address. i will recommend axiom ,, if u didnt find avaiable phone in du or etisalat counters I u r looking for cheaper than mall outlets stir to Deira Naif Road huge Mobile market is there more than 100 shops are in that … u can get…

What is the best place for buying laser diodes on the internet?
I am looking for a high power red laser diode (DVD burner quality). I think it have to be capable of over 100 mA and around 635 nm. Ebay has too small of a test unless I am looking in the wrong place (price was around 90$ for 2…

What is the best place for buying my annuity and structured settlement?
Realizing that I needed my annuity now instead of in bits and pieces over 15 years, I started shopping around for some of the companies that agreement in this case. I found that getting an attorney and the companies that importantly recommend doing so are the most…



Source by bestplacefaq

God Against Us: Alien Spaceman Jesus, the World Trade Center Attack and More

GOD AGAINST US: ALIEN SPACEMAN JESUS, THE THE WORLD TRADE CENTER ATTACK AND MORE

Alvin Miller

(1986)

My second, newest article: http://www.angelfire.com/crazy/spaceman/inaugural.html
At my site: http://www.angelfire.com/crazy/spaceman/ TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

CHAPTER ONE: A PLAUSIBLE TIMETABLE

CHAPTER TWO: A FIRST LOOK AT NORMAN O. BROWN

CHAPTER THREE: THE MEDIA MESSIAH, OR LOOKING FOR JESUS ON
TV
CHAPTER FOUR: THE MESSIAH RETURNS

APPENDIX: THE SECRET RAPTURE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

FILM LIST BY DATE

FILM LIST

FILM SERIALS

PREFACE

What do you call a crazy spaceman? – – An Astronut.
What follows is a nearly word for word online version of my ©1986 booklet WEIRD ESCHATOLOGY: AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF THE SECOND COMING (ISBN 0-9616435-0-1; Library of Congress Call Number BT823.M55 1986). By the time you finish this, you may conclude that this particular peculiar interpretation of the Book of Revelation should be relegated to the teachings of self-appointed cranks, crackpots, prophets of doom and various other assorted fanatics. But perhaps, even so, your own view may be clarified when you read this. The first chapter deals with theology and may be slightly dull, but fasten your seatbelt, as I will get more and more weird ahead (in terms of any interpretation you have seen before). Note that I make use of mostly unobtainable texts and obscure films. Lack of access to these sources should not impede your understanding of what follows. Also, to emphasize the ostensibly momentous issues I am dealing with here, I capitalize the subject phrases I discuss.

CHAPTER ONE

A PLAUSIBLE TIMETABLE

Are you a Christian? Do you believe in the Second Coming at some future date? Is it legitimate to construct timetables for these future events?
Rhetorical questions such as these right off the bat may well put you off. A major difficulty is that no consensus as to when and in what sequence these predicted events must take place. This topic has always been a particular source of schism and polemic. I will be proposing specific dates as numerous have in each generation before me. And as many have been before me, I can be refuted by the mere passage of time.
The majority view espoused by most evangelicals is pretribulational premillennalism, which I only partially agree with. I will point out that part of this view is in fact based on a historical novelty that only traces back to the nineteenth century. What I mean here is that in terms of the glacially slow movement of theology (remember that the canon was finalized some two thousand years ago), the majority view is a relatively recent innovation.
I prefer a distinctly minority position, which would be called multiple-rapture postmillennialism. The postmillennial position holds that many of the predictions made in the New Testament, including those of the Olivet Discourse (Matt. 24, Mk 13, Luke 21), were accomplished in the early Christian era, and their past fulfillment limit’s the future events to be expected. There exists one school, represented by, for example, Max King and Timothy James, which holds that each and every prophecy of the entire New Testament was accomplished during the early Church age. However, I feel this view neglects proper consideration of the Book of Revelation.
Postmillennialism is also sometimes referred to as preterism, which implies that the text is allowed to speak without exegesis. Thus, when Jesus repeatedly predicts the Kingdom within a generation, I do not write off the statement as a mistake or excess of enthusiasm. Instead, I draw up a timetable that shows the Kingdom beginning a generation after the Crucifixion. Then, when John of Patmos says the Millennium starts at this date of the beginning of the Kingdom, I duly go to my chart (at the end of this chapter) and set the Thousand Year Clock ticking. There was in fact a specific date a generation after the Crucifixion – the pivotal date of A.D. 70. This was the historical date of the Fall of Jerusalem, which is not a particularly prominent date in more mainstream discussions. This is the date of the First Resurrection in the terminology of John of Patmos that begins the Millennium.
What happened in A.D. 70? After a lengthy siege by the Roman legions, Jerusalem was ransacked and leveled. To the secular eye, as detailed by Josephus in THE JEWISH WAR in gory detail, the scene was one of mass destruction in which not even the Temple was spared. But to the spiritual eye, as Russell’s PAROUSIA demonstrated more than a century ago, these events were the fulfillment of the Olivet Discourse and the return of Jesus and His conquering armies in the clouds to inaugurate the spiritual reign with the saints and martyrs. Other sources listed in the bibliography including Chilton’s PARADISE RESTORED espouse this view. Chilton nominated Jerusalem as the Whore of Babylon and Rome as the Beast. (Note added 2006: In my 1986 Timetable I followed Chilton. I have since reversed my opinion. I now see Rome as the Whore and Jerusalem as the Beast.)
I need to stop for a moment to consider the question of the dating of the Book of Revelation. The presently accepted date for the appearance of the Book of Revelation is A.D. 95. If this is the correct date, the fulfillment of the predictions made so far would be merely a matter of hindsight. I recommend John A. T. Robinson’s examination of this question in REDATING THE NEW TESTAMENT. Robinson cites extensive internal and external evidence for moving the date of the Book of Revelation back to the A.D. 70 timeframe. Further, he traces the standard A.D. 95 view back to a single source. This source is a statement by Irenaeus that the Apocalypse first appeared “toward the end of Domitian’s reign.” This statement is ambiguous and may even be merely mistaken. Other sources listed in the bibliography (including Chilton and James) accept an earlier date.
The Book of Revelation represents a significant amplification of the preceding Gospels and Epistles. Here the concept of the Millennium is introduced for the first and only time. The timetable presented by John of Patmos extends forward to the future Judgment Day and the establishment of the New Jerusalem, thereby completing the New Testament Canon.
Turning to the time period of the Millennium, lasting approximately from A.D. 70 to A.D. 1070, the starting point was the spiritual event, the Parousia, as detailed by Russell and Chilton. But secular historians looking back at this time period as a whole have labeled it the Dark Ages. More recently this verdict has been tempered by the demonstration of the development and technical progress that occurred in the Middle and Far East during these years. But it does remain true that for Western Civilization, primarily Western Europe for these years, these were times of unprecedented barbarism and ignorance. During these times the blood of countless martyrs was spilled in belatedly laying down the Roman Empire and establishing the Church. Violence was the order of the day and sugarcoating or rose-colored glasses are unnecessary. The First Resurrection was an event of mass destruction and the Kingdom or Millennium was an era of barbarism. In other words, it is not an accident or coincidence that the fulfillment of the prophecies was apocalyptic. Instead, there is an important principle to remember here, since I will point out that Judgment Day will also be mass destruction and the New Jerusalem to follow will appear to secular eyes again be relative barbarism. I will take up these thoughts again in later chapters.
Why didn’t Judgment Day begin about A.D.1070 with the end of the Millennium? Historically, many of the people living then did expect to see the Messiah return. I answer instead that this was the date when Satan was unbound for his season. Here I part company with many of the sources listed in the bibliography. They prefer to see the Millennium as an indeterminate period extending potentially thousands of years with Satan loosed for his season only shortly prior to the Second Coming. They see the Church still in the Millennial period expanding and consolidating its gains to ultimately convert the entire world immediately prior to the Advent. On the contrary, I hold that John of Patmos really meant a time period of approximately one thousand years, and that Satan has been at work sowing his evil. I admit that the season has now lasted nearly a thousand years in its own right. One consolation is that this extended period is finally about to come to a close. Satan has been quite busy from my point of view during the last centuries. Examples of his infamous work would be such events as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation, the Inquisition, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution on down to the contemporary horrific mass movements. I could be accused of being a feudalist or an obscurantist here. However, I do not look back to the Kingdom so much as forward to the approaching New Jerusalem. At this point in time I feel we are reaching the low point of the curve descending to Hell, immediately prior to the Messiah’s return.
Thus, I teach hellfire and damnation, as do most of the right wing evangelists who hold the premillennial view. But, as I have said, the postmillennialists of the bibliography, who are also uniformly conservative for the most part, place much less emphasis on this aspect.
I am also in agreement with the premillennialists with respect to the Rapture. Historically, for eighteen centuries the Rapture was taken as essentially simultaneous with the Advent. This is detailed by, among others, MacPherson in THE GREAT RAPTURE HOAX and Kimball in THE RAPTURE: A QUESTION OF TIMING. MacPherson demonstrates that the nineteenth century so-called Scotch seer Margaret MacDonald in 1830 introduced the pretribulational Rapture – a temporal separation of a Secret Rapture from the Second Coming. This introduction was a theological novelty or innovation. MacPherson traces the concept from its introduction through the nineteenth century figures Darby and Scofield to the mainstream electronic evangelists of today. I have said that I accept the multiple-Rapture view, which is a variation of the pretribulational Rapture. I agree, based on the work of my sources, that this view had its origins only in the nineteenth century. I will indicate why I hold that view in the last part of Chapter Three.
I should note that because I take a preterist perspective, I place less emphasis on seeing the events that occurred with the First Resurrection exactly duplicated on Judgment Day. For example, Nero was clearly the Antichrist for A.D. 70, but I don’t necessarily expect to see a new Antichrist prior to the Second Coming. If forced to, one could select from many twentieth century candidates for this post. Similarly, I don’t expect to see the coming events occurring at the actual Jerusalem this time. I predict in Chapter Four they will more likely begin in one of the advanced Western nations.
Beginning with the next chapter, I will be using apparently incongruous sources, such as left wing sources from the sixties. I will delve into films and the media in general. These sources I will bring up are relevant to the issues of this chapter. So far I have outlined a plausible but not mainstream view of Christian eschatology. From this point forward, as promised, expect the view presented to be ‘weird‘.

CHAPTER TWO

A FIRST LOOK AT NORMAN O. BROWN

It is a tale
Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury
Signifying nothing.
-Shakespeare

There is a good possibility you have never heard of Norman O. Brown or come across any of his writings. His books are now a generation old and partly out of print. Perhaps certain of the issues he raised have become moot with the passage of time.
I think when his books originally came out Brown was taken as merely a sexual radical. I say merely here in the sense that Brown would not be under discussion if I felt that was solely what he was about. A superficial reading of his cryptic, aphoristic style indeed does give this impression. However, the actual subject of two of his books, LOVE’S BODY (1966) and CLOSING TIME (1973) was religion. Of the two books, CLOSING TIME is currently out of print but necessary for a complete picture. With these two books Brown actually solved the mysteries of religion. Am I here claiming that if you comprehend these books you will have all your questions answered on religion? Yes, that is indeed what I am claiming. Brown did get all the way to the inner sanctum. If you are able to solve Brown’s puzzles, you will simultaneously solve the mysteries of religion. I say this fully aware that Brown’s erudition makes this a monumental task.
If I have piqued your curiosity, and you decide to take a look at Brown, the best procedure might be to look at some other sources as a preliminary. It’s all there in Brown in plain English, you understand, but you may have more success by circling in from the periphery. One good out of print source from the same time period is Eric Gutkind’s THE BODY OF GOD: FIRST STEPS TOWARD AN ANTI-THEOLOGY. This book is also written in an aphoristic style. Comparing the title of this book with LOVE’S BODY will give you a clue to start you on the road to solving Brown. Looking from the philosophical side, Michael Harrington’s THE POLITICS AT GOD’S FUNERAL astutely asks all the right questions. The best book ever written on Jesus is Constantin Brunner’s OUR CHRIST: THE REVOLT OF THE MYSTICAL GENIUS (1921). Here’s an interesting sentence from the book: “There he hung, the blasphemer of God and slander of the most noble men, the poor malicious fool, the incorrigble wretch, the whoreson and whore monger, the swindler, the liar, the secucer.” The so-called radical Freudians, in general, such as Marcuse, Reich and Roheim in addition to Brown, are pertinent.
There isn’t space for an exegesis of Brown. Instead I’ll outline a central idea – the importance of the Primal Scene. For the uninitiated, the Primal Scene is what Dad and Mom did in the bedroom. Now even Freud’s disciples had difficulty seeing the significance of the Oedipal Primal Scene and repeatedly attempted to revise their master. Perhaps the best way to get an inking of its significance is to set up a confrontation between the Joker (the little ‘castrated’ clown portrayed by Brown) and you. Put yourself in the following scene as a male:

You are standing on the outskirts of the big, modern city where you live as the Joker approaches.
The Joker begins, “You know, stranger, I’ve been doing a lot of traveling lately and have seen several cities, including this one. I must say I don’t like what I’ve been seeing at all. In every town the residents use elaborate locks on their doors and seen to be afraid to get outside on their own sidewalks at night. One minute they use each other’s bodies as pleasure objects, and the next they sue each other at the slightest provocation. I see noise, confusion, mayhem and worse at each turn. I can’t think of a thing that happened in Sodom that hasn’t happened here many times over. Tell me, when you first came here was the city the same as it is now?”
You reply, “More or less it was, indeed.”
The Joker says, “This town is a hard place to try to make a living in. Life is so hectic, there is such a constant rush and din, that I sometimes believe I’m really caught in a nightmare and will wake up at any moment. This is no place to try to start a family or to raise a child. There’s no place for the kids to play here. You know, although I’ve had plenty of opportunities to unzip my pants and pull out my gun here, I just haven’t felt right about it and so far decided to keep my pants zipped up. But I see by the ring on your finger that the situation here apparently didn’t deter you. You had the same opportunity, after all, to look around and see what was going on. But I see that no matter what you saw, you weren’t about to stay away. You had to have it. I admit that I am only a Fool. But I ask you – who’s the better man?”
You: (Speechless).
The Joker resumes, ” Because I care about the evil I see and you don’t particularly care, you end up with a child to carry on your line, and I don’t. I ask you, which man has the greater love?”
You finally speak, “Before I punch you out, do you have anything more to say? – Any last words?”
The Joker ignores this and pauses a moment to scan the distant skyline. He then points a finger at the tallest skyscraper, rising in the mists – a source of civic pride known to all residents (and an indisputable phallic symbol). The Joker turns and asks, “How? – that building there – Tell me how that modern Tower of Babel was constructed? No, let me answer the question. It was constructed by men who at some time or other unzipped their pants. Not that a single one of them was ever forced to you understand. It is after all a voluntary act. Now I ask you to consider for a moment with me what would have happened if not one of these same men had ever unzipped their pants at all – not even one single time. How much of what you see around here now would still be here? I’ll answer – not a bit of it would here, including the building I just pointed to. I’ve been wondering these days why we put up with the perpetual nightmares here that we go through to get these massive monuments constructed. If we could just get all the women under control, we could sit around all day and drink beer and play cards.”
You reply, “Leave it to a shiftless ne’er-do-well to –“
The Joker interrupts, “What we really need here is a King – the absolute biggest Fool we can find with the largest member. I think you may agree that I am the perfect candidate for this job, as I’m absolutely no good for anything else.”
The pair glare at each other, ready to fight.

Let me make the important point about this tale that the ‘you” of the dialogue could just as well be the Joker’s father as anyone else – not a single line of the preceding would need to be changed. (In the original tale of Oedipus meeting his father at the crossroads, the pair had been separated and there was a disguise and neither seemed to recognize the other, at least consciously.) If the ‘you’ of the narrative were indeed the Joker’s father, the Joker would then literally be a son of a gun. This would also make the Joker on his mother’s side literally an S.O.B.
In the dialogue that took place at the Temptation of Christ (Matt. 4:1-11, Mk. 2:13, Luke 4:1-13), Jesus rejected Satan’s offer of the kingdoms of this world. Brown says we are indeed in Satan’s kingdom, i.e., Hell, especially in the big cities. Jesus will one day accept dominion over the earthly kingdoms, but only on Judgment Day when His enemies have been made into footstools. When He does return, He will bring the keys to Hell and to Death. This implies that a massive restructuring of present urban life – our man-made Hell – will begin at this point.
To change the subject, if you have an interest in James Joyce, you should examine the excerpts Brown has collected in CLOSING TIME. Joyce either imitates (or himself actually is) the insane. The WAKE is from start to finish nothing but the gibberings of a madman. FINNEGANS WAKE is a textual Rorschach test, by which I mean that in its voluminous pages, any phrase you are looking for before you open the book can likely be found. But all the excerpts Brown has assembled taken together conclusively demonstrate that Joyce ‘cracked’ religion, i.e., that all the answers were set down in the WAKE. In other words, Brown demonstrates that Joyce earlier pioneered the same trail in that Brown found. I don’t want to go beyond fair use and start quoting text, so I’ll stop.
CHAPTER THREE

THE MEDIA MESSIAH: LOOKING FOR JESUS ON TV

Let me start with a lengthy list:

PURPLE RAIN COLORED RAIN GREEN RAIN FAIRY RAIN INVISIBLE RAIN BLOWING THE WIND REAPING THE WHIRLWIND IDIOT WIND WEATHER WAR REICHIAN ORGONE RADAR LOVE THE CALL LONDON CALLING THE BIG BROADCAST WEIRD RADIO PLANET WAVES BLOWING THE HORN SOUNDING THE TRUMPET MIND WAR FAIRY GOLD FAIRY BLIGHT FAIRY BASEBALL FAIRY BOWLING WALLS TUMBLING DOWN BALLOON GOES UP THE LONG GOODBYE THE BIG SHOOTOUT THE LAST ROUNDUP DROPPING THE VIALS THE POWER AND THE GLORY FIRE AND BRIMSTONE THE FLOOD TWINKLING OF AN EYE THE RAPTURE THE SECRET RAPTURE MARCHING MORONS DROPPING THE BIG ONE THE DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL THE MACHINE STOPS THE FINAL SOLUTION THE ELEPHANT BURIAL GROUNDS THE ROAD TO HOLOCAUST TIMEBOMB TICKING OVER SODOM LAYING THE DEVIL DOWN RADIO SILENCE LIGHTS OUT SHUTTING IT DOWN TURNING IT OFF PULLING THE PLUG PUNCHING THE DELETE BUTTON THE SCREEN GOES DARK CLOSING TIME JUDGMENT DAY SIGNING OFF NIGHTFALL THE BIG SLEEP

“Whom the gods would destroy, they first drive mad” I’ll ask some questions about this list to clarify it. At first sight, looking over this by no means exhaustive list, it appears we need to get out our umbrellas (or perhaps a degree in meteorology). The first question to ask is: How many of these phrases have you ever come across before? Try to think where, if anywhere, any of these phrases can be found. After thinking it over, you might decide that some show up in literature, some may be from the Bible, but many of them come from the media.
The next question about the list would be: by grouping all these phrases together as I did, did I thus intend to imply that each phrase is identical or synonymous with each other phrase in the list? No, they are interchangeable in only a few cases, but they are interrelated. What then do the phrases have in common? My answer is that all bear a direct relationship to a single phrase:

MASS PSYCHOSIS

This particular phrase, Mass Psychosis, you are probably less likely to have come across. Mass Psychosis is the actual meaning of the Fundamentalist doctrine of the Secret Rapture.
Now I’m sure if one had the opportunity to interview rock star Prince and ask him what he meant by Purple Rain that he would not immediately reply, “a codeword for mass psychosis.” Similarly, Bob Dylan wouldn’t be inclined to say, “When I sang about Idiot Wind, I meant mass psychosis.” I would instead expect convoluted explanations involving literary metaphors, etc., if I received any reply at all.
Incidentally, I mentioned Prince deliberately since there was controversy about his ‘explicit ‘ lyrics when his songs came out. I note that his critics had nothing at all to say about the other dimension of his songs I am pointing to here – Judgment Day by 1999, etc.
Here I want to stop discussion of the list and return at the end of this chapter with more comments. Let me briefly return to the general topic of the media. By media I mean all the conduits by which paid entertainment reaches us – film, radio, television, etc. Because television has such a voracious appetite, I will be using the term media and TV more or less interchangeably. Think of how TV, in order to fill each and every hour, gobbles up the output of the other media, from films to stage plays to even rock music in the form of music videos. Some of us are logging in nearly a third of our lives glued to out sets these days. As a baby boomer, I teethed on TV and took its pervasive influence for granted. But, after decades of exposure we have now had, I feel it is time we should begin a serious examination of the media. Its influence is probably considerably greater than literary sources today.
Already by the sixties we had the McLuhanesque dictum that the medium is the message. This idea is that the content is not particularly important, but rather the existence and ubiquitousness of the medium itself is the most significant fact.
Let me look at media criticism in terms of increasing level of profundity. At the lowest, most abysmal level, the media are seen as providing harmless entertainment. But the billions of dollars we dump into the media demonstrate that much more is going on. Slightly better is the extreme right wing evangelical view that TV and films are the devil’s picture book and rock music is the devil’s music. This approach has the virtue of being factually correct, but has fallen on increasingly hard times as all but the diehards have capitulated and joined in the media cacophony themselves. Massive blocks of radio broadcast time and entire cable networks are devoted to selling Jesus sandwiched in between the ads for soap and used cars.
Slightly more discriminating is the idea that TV is a boob tube and rock music is subversive trash, and exposure to one or both may permanently warp your brain. Is the ultimate objective to produce a race of mindless, godless, zombie giants (the return of the “men of renown” of Genesis as described by Brown in CLOSING TIME)?
What indeed keeps us mesmerized by the flickering images hour after hour? Why are so many of us couch potatoes – practically frozen into stone statues? What are we really watching? The answer from Norman O. Brown is that we are seeing the Oedipal Primal Scene reenacted night after night in endless repetition with slight variations. You object, “I beg your pardon. I watched a game show followed by a situation comedy last night.” What we are really doing here is paying performers to put on the only show we want to see.
Finally, at the highest level of criticism, we also simultaneously get the final verdict on the media. We are watching Jesus get crucified night after night in excruciating detail, although we may not be consciously aware of it. After decades of this, I think it is likely to catch up with us some day. In other words, the lurid violence and evil we see depicted in the media may eventually come to us in real life.
In spite of the blanket condemnation of the last paragraph, I’m going to turn around and list some movies. Ideally you should stay away. But the payoff is going to come to us all, whether or not we individually may or may not have watched. In the meantime, perhaps we can use the opportunity to study both the overt and the subtle techniques being employed.
The primary genre to keep an eye on is science fiction. As Susan Sontag said in the sixties, this is the genre of apocalypse and mass destruction. Typically, as in the prototype FRANKENSTEIN (1932), a man attempts to appropriate the prerogatives of God (technically blasphemy) and reaps madness and disaster. These are rigidly moral parables where retribution is swift and sure.
Look, for example, at Rene Clair’s THE CRAZY RAY (1923) from the infancy of the industry. The elements that were to become cliches with decades of continuous repetition were already present. A mad scientist invents a ray machine he constructs inside the Eiffel Tower that turns the inhabitants of Paris into stone statues. An aircraft initially out of range of the ray lands, and the passengers are astonished when they disembark. One worthwhile principle of criticism is to pay particular attention to the message of film titles. In this example, the title might bring to mind such questions as: “did the title mean the inventor was crazy? Or did the ray have crazy effects? Or did the ray drive people crazy, implying that to turn people to stone is to drive them mad?”
A quite similar theme is presented in THE VILLAGE OF THE DAMNED (1960) and its sequel THE CHILDREN OF THE DAMNED (1964) (what questions do these titles bring to mind?). This time a mysterious influence seals off an entire village, the perpetrators in this case being invading aliens. Here, as in THE CRAZY RAY, a geographic area is temporarily circumscribed. The females are impregnated by the aliens and subsequently bear children with glowing eyes and mysterious powers. This aspect of the film echoes the tale in the Book of Enoch of the fallen angels who descended to earth to mate with the women and to teach forbidden arts.
Let me quickly note a few relevant characteristics of paranoid schizophrenia as described by, for example, Norman O. Brown, Geza Roheim or Victor Tausk. The patient believes evil entities such as aliens from another world are secretly conspiring to do him harm. The patient may believe his enemies are employing physical equipment such as beam projectors against him. He is subject to seeing hallucinations or hearing voices attempting to guide his actions against his will. In THE NEXT VOICE YOU HEAR (1950) normal radio broadcasts are interrupted for short periods each night, and the cast seems to hear a message. This message seems to be more or less the Sermon on the Mount. Was this the voice of God? If not, what was it?
Another frequent theme in science fiction is the nomination of candidate (false) messiahs. I say false, since we are merely watching actors playing a fictional role. A real life prototype of these characters if found would not automatically thereby be a messiah. An example is THE MAN FROM PLANET X (1951), which has an alien who is trapped and needs earthly assistance.
THE DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL (1951) (note the title) offers another false messiah. An alien descends in a saucer, takes on the interesting name of Mr. Carpenter, is killed and resurrected three days later, etc. In the case of this film, the extensive analogies were conscious on the part of some of the production people and were taken from the novel on which the film is based.

In the BRAIN FROM PLANET AROUS (1958) an alien
possesses a scientist, who then embarks on a mad quest to rule the world. It’s my all time favorite movie. He has the power to shoot airliners out of the sky with his eyes while lauging maniacally. He causes megaton exposions with no visible weapons in his scheme for world domination. He’s also a sex fiend. Ingmar Bergman’s THE MAGICIAN (1958) presents a rather dyspeptic false messiah from a traveling carnival show. The messiah of WHISTLE DOWN THE WIND (1962) (note the title) is a fugitive mistaken for Jesus when discovered in their barn. When apprehended and frisked, he stretches his arms to form a cross. THE FLIM FLAM MAN (1967) is a petty con artist living by his wits. CHARLY (1968) is mentally retarded until chemically transformed into a supermind. In THE RULING CLASS (1971), the candidate is an apparent psychopath. THE OMEGA MAN (1971), a remake of THE LAST MAN ON EARTH (1964), (note the titles) offers another ersatz messiah. In ZARDOZ (1973), the messiah figure is a barbarian.
SKY CAPTAIN AND THE WORLD OF TOMORROW (2004) has as the villan a man in his grave named German Toden Kopf (Death’s Head). He has arranged to have a new Noah’s ark built. As so often, the villan is the secret hero, because here Sky Captain actually destroys the Ark! HOLOCAUST 2000 (1978) (note the prediction in the title) presents the spectacle of Kirk Douglas wildly running up and down the Middle Eastern oilfields proclaiming the Ten Horns, etc. from the Book of Revelation. The messiah of THE LAST WAVE (1979) is an aboriginal witch doctor. In BEING THERE (1979), a simple-minded gardener who can barely tie his bootlaces and happens to be named Mr. Gardiner impresses the President as a sage. At the end of the film he walks on water since no one has told him this is impossible. A not very bright academic in SIMON (1979) is prevailed upon to impersonate a spaceman. After a period of rigorous mental brainwashing and physical conditioning, Simon comes to believe that he actually is an alien. He uses equipment that interrupts regular television broadcasts when he periodically wants to deliver messages. Similarly, in RIDERS OF THE STORM (1986), riders on a bomber interrupt TV broadcasts.
Woody Allen’s ZELIG (1984) features a schizophrenic chameleon who supposedly hobnobbed with the leading political figures of the thirties. In the PURPLE ROSE OF CAIRO (1985), also by Woody Allen, a larger than life hero steps out of the screen in a movie theater and into the squalid life of a New Jersey housewife. CREATOR (1985) has a loony college professor who is attempting to resurrect his dead wife. The students he recruits for the project are lectured on the Big Picture.
Numerous other films with similar themes are listed in the bibliography, but, due to space limitations, I won’t give further examples here. Men play god in the movies, but do they in real life? I point to such research as genetic engineering, or the ‘star wars’ project (laser weapons, beam projectors, etc.) These devices were first predicted in science fiction, but always accompanied by warnings we conveniently ignored that to develop them would be to court disaster. Further, I will shortly point out that while these films depict physical devices, such actual equipment is unnecessary to produce the effects depicted.
As for the entertainment industry, we pour multiple billions into it year in and year out. For what we pay we get back entertainment, but additionally, we also get back social engineering that we didn’t necessarily ask for. I am by no means suggesting a conscious conspiracy or deliberate plot by Hollywood. The fundamental problem is again expressed by McLuhan – the medium is the message. In other words, inherent in the nature of the images produced by the media is a latent potential for subversion and ultimately destruction.
From this point to the end of the chapter, I will again take up the list with which I began this chapter. Upon completing the listing, I said each term was related to the term Mass Psychosis. I now claim we have already had several actual episodes. The first, in late August 1973, lasted nearly two weeks. It occurred during the Watergate period and was done primarily by the ‘hippies’. The April 1983 event occurred during the time of the American embassy bombing in Lebanon. The October 1983 event occurred during the time of the Marine barracks bombing in Lebanon. The most recent event was the broadcast made while the Tower of Babel 9-11 attack (World Trade Center) was simultaneously taking place. These broadcasts lasted only a day or so each and were done by a remnant handful of people.
What is the Invisible Rain like when it is falling? A person walking down the street may stop for a second, look around quizzically (what the #$*!), perhaps sniff the air, and then continue on. You’ve lived through it – you tell me what it’s like.
A few comments to wrap up the chapter. These events should not be referred to as a Flood, because of God’s promise in Genesis that there would be no more Flood. The New Testament imagery is always fire. I hold Margaret MacDonald’s Secret Rapture innovation of the nineteenth century correct, since we now have hindsight on these (multiple) events. There may or may not be more before the Messiah returns. After all, no one can predict the weather.
CHAPTER FOUR

THE MESSIAH RETURNS

I’ll begin with another list:

THE SPACE COWBOY THE SKY MARSHAL OF THE UNIVERSE SKY KING KING OF THE ROCKET MEN STARMAN THE LOST PLANET AIRMAN THE MAN FROM INNER SPACE THE MORON FROM OUTER SPACE THE DIVINE IDIOT THE MAN WITH A THOUSAND FACES THE MIRROR MAN THE INVISIBLE MAN THE THIN MAN THE OMEGA MAN THE MYSTERY MAN THE MAN WITH THE POWER THE MAN WITH THE POISON MIND THE MEDICINE MAN THE RAINMAKER THE FERTILITY KING WILD-EYED CHAMELEON THE JOKER THE DEMOLITION MAN BIG BROTHER

Let me ask a few rhetorical questions. Are we perhaps involved in a real life version of the children’s game King of the Mountain in order to pick out the Messiah? Consider the paranoid schizophrenic with delusions of grandeur or possibly what is diagnosed as a messianic complex. What has this to do with the Messiah? Am I suggesting the Messiah will be merely a madman? Let me define a fairy or Peter Pan. A fairy is chronologically and physiologically an adult but has refused to assume an adult identity (ego) and has refused to take on adult responsibility. A fairy more or less never outgrows the omniscience, omnipotence and sense of wonder possessed by the infant, and inhabits fantasy mental worlds in preference to the real world. Again, I ask, what has this to do with the Messiah?
I took a brief look in the preceding chapter at some of what I felt were candidate messiahs being put forward by the movie industry. I wonder if we might be getting practice for recognizing the actual Messiah when He returns. I feel such practice may well be a good idea, since; for one thing, the Messiah won’t be riding the White Horse this time (that was done in A.D. 70). Neither do I expect to see a flying saucer descending from the skies to a world capital.
I suspect it will be an Incarnation in the manner that occurred at Bethlehem. At that time, only the Wise Men and a handful of others could discern the Messiah. One dictionary definition of blasphemy is for a mortal to name himself a god. I feel there could well be an early period when the Chosen One is accused as a blasphemer or the Antichrist. A considerable period of time may elapse before He is acclaimed Lord of lords and King of kings.
At any rate, once the Messiah is actually recognized, it will then become a situation of “when the saints go marching in”. In whichever country He first appears, the Messiah and a motley crew of followers will walk into the capital city and take power. You say you want to be in that number? I suggest you think carefully about it. To the secular eye this will be a Fool’s Parade or Goon Squad made up of Snake People (Marching Morons) – the actual ‘meek’ who will then inherit the earth. I repeat – do you want to be in that number?
How, you may object, will a mere handful of such people be able to take over a major capital city? The context is important here. We are dealing at this point in time with a nation under siege internally and externally, soon to fall. Numerous other portentous dire events will be occurring simultaneously that will dilute the significance of the central event. The World Trade Center attack, 9-11, was just the inaugural event of a coming series of catastrophes. We are on an accelerating descending slope. God is against us now for our Godless Wicked ways. This will be confirmed by the disasters coming ahead predicted here.
Initially the Messiah will assume actual secular political power in order to obtain the objective of reinstating theocracy – an archaic form of government long abandoned and forgotten by Western nations. Looking again with secular eyes, whether considered from the political left or from the political right, the government will be a de facto fascist government – no matter what label is ostensibly applied to it. To provide an example of the type of events that will be taking place, if, and I cannot overemphasize the hypothetical, if this occurs in Washington, DC, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights will be abolished and both Houses of Congress dissolved. I find this idea unpalatable, and I feel none of the sources I have mentioned would find this palatable, nor would you. I do not believe these events will occur in the actual Jerusalem, but, as I have indicated, one of the major Western capitals, which will then become a platform for world domination.
W. Reich in the forties prior to even the advent of national TV took a look at popular culture in THE MURDER OF CHRIST. He was acutely aware of the possibility of fascism, having had direct experience with the mass movements of the twentieth century of both the left and the right. What would be his verdict now, some sixty years later? Many science fiction films have dramatized a fascist takeover. Are they a prototype for future real events?
The evolutionary stages the government will undergo can be expressed in the Marxist schemata. The first phase corresponds to the dictatorship of the proletariat (rule by the meek). Then begins the transition period to the withering away of the state and the classless society or New Jerusalem. Theologians have previously published outlines of the analogies between Marxist mythology and Christian eschatology. And the return of the Messiah will actually fulfill Marx’s predictions, as well as those of John of Patmos simultaneously. During the transition period, it will be a matter of being forced to do without various items we now take for granted. The entire entertainment industry will be dispensed with – television broadcasts, movies, rock music, etc. Much of the high technology of the West will be abandoned. We will cease constructing aircraft, rockets and probably even automobiles (do only angels have wings?) This will be accomplished with only a minimum of objection because the Messiah will rule with a Rod of Iron as the Book of Revelation predicts. He will be a combination Joe Stalin, Jim Jones, Adolph Hitler and Ayatollah Khomeni rolled into one. Amos in the Old Testament correctly prophecied the gnashing of teeth and tribulation that would come with the Day of the Lord.
Is Western Civilization about to officially end? Are we and our descendants to become almost exclusively concerned with physical survival, staying alive? Don’t go outside to watch the skies for the Advent. Merely stay tuned to your TV set and start paying more attention. Have I seen one too many science fiction movies? Or is the show you never expected to see ABOUT TO BEGIN?! APPENDIX

Brief excerpts from Margaret MacDonald’s 1830 Secret Rapture prophecy:

It was first the awful state of the land that was pressed upon me. I saw the blindness and infatuation of the people to be very great. I felt the cry of Liberty to be just the hiss of the serpent to drown them in perdition. It was just ‘no God’, —-
I saw the people of God in an awfully dangerous situation, surrounded by nets and entanglements, about to be tried, and many about to be deceived and fall. Now will THE WICKED be revealed, with all power and signs and lying wonders, so that if it were possible the very elect will be deceived.

PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chapter One.

The following titles are examples of conservative postmillennial and amillennial views as opposed to the standard premillennial view.

Bray, John L., THE MILLENNIUM – THE BIG QUESTION?
Chilton, David, PARADISE RESTORED: A BIBLICAL THEOLOGY OF DOMINION.
Brunner, Constantin, OUR CHRIST: THE REVOLT OF THE MYSTICAL GENIUS (1921 – published 1990).
James, Timothy A. THE MESSIAH’S RETURN: DELAYED? FULFILLED? OR DOUBLE-FULFILLMENT? Jones, R Bradley, THE GREAT TRIBULATON.
Kik, J. Marcellus, AN ESCHATOLOGY OF VICTORY.
Kimball, William R., THE RAPTURE: A QUESTION OF TIMING.
King, Max, THE SPIRIT OF PROPHECY.
Lewis, Arthur H., THE DARK SIDE OF THE MILLENNIUM.
Logston, Robert, THE END-TIMES BLOODBATH. MacPherson, Dave, THE GREAT RAPTURE HOAX.
Robinson, John A. T., REDATING THE NEW TESTAMENT.
J. Stuart, THE PAROUSIA (1887).
Stevens, Ed, WHAT HAPPENED IN 70 A.D.
Terry, Milton, BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS.

Chapters Two-Four.

Brown, Noman O., CLOSING TIME (1973).
______________, LOVE’S BODY (1966).
Campbell, Joseph and Robinson, H., A SKELETON KEY TO FINNEGANS WAKE (1944). Gutkind, Eric, THE BODY OF GOD: FIRST STEPS TOWARD AN ANTI-THEOLOGY (1966-Horizon Press).
Harrington, M. THE POLITICS AT GOD’S FUNERAL: THE SPIRITUAL CRISIS OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION (1983)
Hyde, Lewis, TRICKSTER MAKES THIS WORLD (1988).
Joyce, James, FINNEGANS WAKE (1939).
Reich, Wilhelm, THE MURDER OF CHRIST: THE EMOTIONAL PLAGUE OF MANKIND (1966). Robinson, Paul A., THE FREUDIAN LEFT: WILHELM REICH, GEZA ROHEIM, HERBERT MARCUSE (1969). Roheim, Geza, MAGIC AND SCHIZOPHRENIA (1955). ____________, ANIMISM, MAGIC AND THE DIVINE KING (1930). Sontag, Susan, “The imagination of disaster.” AGAINST INTERPRETATION AND OTHER ESSAYS (1966). Tausk, Victor, “On the origin of the ‘Influencing Machine’ in schizophrenia” (1933).
Tindall, W., A READER’S GUIDE TO FINNEGANS WAKE (1969).
Verene, D., KNOWLEDGE OF THINGS HUMAN AND DIVINE: VICO’S NEW SCIENCE AND FINNEGANS WAKE (2003).

FILM LIST BY DATE (PRIMARILY SCIENCE FICTION)

A partial list of relevant and valuable film titles. No studios are given. Especially significant films are preceeded by an *

*EVAN ALMIGHTY (2007) (sequel to BRUCE ALMIGHTY. God commands Evan to build an Ark)

THE INVISIBLE (2007) AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH (1996) CLICK (2006)

STRANGER THAN FICTION (2006)

BEWITCHED (2005)

CHICKEN LITTLE (2005) (‘The sky is falling!)

*CONSTANTINE (2005)

V FOR VENDETTA (2005) THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW (2004)

ELLA ENCHANTED (2004)

FAHRENHEIT 9/11 (2004)

THE FINAL CUT (2004) (madman must die to save others)

THE FORGOTTEN (2004)

THE LOST SKELETON OF CADAVRA (2004)

THE MACHINIST (2004)

THE PASSION OF THE CHRIST (2004)

*SKY CAPTAIN AND THE WORLD OF TOMMOROW (2004)

WHAT THE #$*! DO WE KNOW!? (2004)

*BRUCE ALMIGHTY (2003) (‘Armageddon outta here!’)

*NORTHFORK (2003) (has an Ark,a Flood and recording angels)

SPIDER (2003) (madman)

CLOCKSTOPPERS (2002) (mass psychosis)

DON’T SAY A WORD (2002)

FINAL (2002)

FRAILTY (2002)

HEARTS IN ATLANTIS (2002)

THE IMPOSTER (2002)

K-PAX (2002)

LILO AND STITCH (2002)

NO SUCH THING (2002)

THE RING (2002)

SIGNS (2002)

ZOOLANDER (2002)

A BEAUTIFUL MIND (2001)

CHICKEN RUN (2000)

END OF DAYS (1999)

GLADIATOR (1998)

THE MATRIX (1998)

*THE SIXTH SENSE (1998)

WHAT DREAMS MAY COME (1998)

MEN IN BLACK (1997)

INDEPENDENCE DAY (1996)

MARS ATTACKS! (1996)

*PLEASANTVILLE (1996)

FORREST GUMP (1994)

*STARGATE (1994)

DROP DEAD FRED (1991) THE RAPTURE (1991)

THE FISHER KING (1990)

THE HANDMAIDS TALE (1990)

LOOSE CANNONS (1990)

SPACED INVADERS (1990)

EARTH GIRLS ARE EASY (1988)

BEETLEJUICE (1988)

BIG (1988)

RAINMAN (1988)

THEY LIVE (1988)

*WINGS OF DESIRE (1988) (angels)

FIELD OF DREAMS (1987)

*MAKING MR. RIGHT (1987)

PRINCE OF DARKNESS (1987)

REAL MEN (1987)

THE BOY WHO COULD FLY (1986)

FLIGHT OF THE NAVIGATOR (1986)

RIDERS OF THE STORM (1986)

BETTER OFF DEAD (1985)

CREATOR (1985)

LIFEFORCE (1985)

*LEGEND (1985)

MORONS FROM OUTER SPACE (1985)

MASS APPEAL (1985)

MY SCIENCE PROJECT (1985)

THE PURPLE ROSE OF CAIRO (1985)

REANIMATOR (1985)

REAL GENIUS (1985)

STARMAN (1985)

WEIRD SCIENCE (1985)

BROTHER FROM ANOTHER PLANET (1984)

THE DEAD ZONE (1984)

DREAMSCAPE (1984)

GHOSTBUSTERS (1984)

THE LAST STARFIGHTER (1984)

THE LONELY GUY (1984)

THE NATURAL (1984)

NIGHT OF THE COMET (1984)

RED DAWN (1984)

REVENGE OF THE NERDS (1984)

SOMETHING WICKED THIS WAY COMES (1984)

TERMINATOR (1984)

TESTAMENT (1984)

*ZELIG (1984)

KRULL (1983)

THE MAN WITH TWO BRAINS (1983)

VIDEODROME (1983)

*ROCK AND RULE (1982)

THE SENDER (1982)

ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK (1981)

SCANNERS (1981)

*THE LATHE OF HEAVEN (1980-PBS)

ALIEN (1979)

*BEING THERE (1979)

CAPRICORN ONE (1979)

THE LAST WAVE (1979)

*SIMON (1979)

HOLOCAUST 2000 (1978)

STAR WARS (1977)

CARRIE (1976)

THE MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (1976)

THE OMEN (1976)

A BOY AND HIS DOG (1975)

*THE DEVIL’S RAIN (1975)

THE STEPFORD WIVES (1975)

WIZARDS (1975)

FLESH GORDON (1974-X)

YOUNG FRANKENSTEIN (1974)

THE EXORCIST (1973)

THE HOLY MOUNTAIN (1973)

HIGH PLAINS DRIFTER (1973)

JESUS CHRIST, SUPERSTAR (1973)

SOYLENT GREEN (1973)

THE SPOOK WHO SAT BESIDE THE DOOR (1973) THE WICKER MAN (1973)

WESTWORLD (1973)

ZARDOZ (1973)

A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971)

FOOLS’ PARADE (1971)

THE LAST PICTURE SHOW (1971)
THE OMEGA MAN (1971)

*THE RULING CLASS (1971)

THEY MIGHT BE GIANTS (1971)

WILLY WONKA AND THE CHOCOLATE FACTORY (1971)

CAPTAIN NEMO AND THE UNDERWATER CITY (1970)

*THE MAGIC CHRISTIAN (1970)

THIS STUFF’LL KILL YA! (1970)
THE RAIN PEOPLE (1969)

CHARLY (1968)

MARS NEEDS WOMEN (1968)

NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD (1968)

PLANET OF THE APES (1968)

THE POWER (1968)

FAHRENHEIT 451 (1967)

THE FLIM FLAM MAN (1967)

DR. GOLDFOOT AND THE GIRL BOMBS (1966)

KING OF HEARTS (1966)

DR. GOLDFOOT AND THE BIKINI MACHINE (1965)

A THOUSAND CLOWNS (1965)

*CHILDREN OF THE DAMNED (1964)

DR. STRANGELOVE: OR, HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1964)

THE LAST MAN ON EARTH (1964)

SEVEN DAYS IN MAY (1964)

THE GREAT ESCAPE (1963)

LORD OF THE FLIES (1963)

THE NUTTY PROFESSOR (1963)

THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (1962)

THE MUSIC MAN (1962)

REPTILICUS (1962)

WHISTLE DOWN THE WIND (1962)

ATLANTIS, THE LOST CONTINENT (1961)

MASTER OF THE WORLD (1961)

ON THE BEACH (1960)

PSYCHO (1960)

*VILLAGE OF THE DAMNED (1960)

THE WORLD, THE FLESH AND THE DEVIL (1959)

ATTACK OF THE 50-FOOT WOMAN (1958)

*THE BRAIN FROM PLANET AROUS (1958)

HOUSE ON HAUNTED HILL (1958)

I MARRIED A MONSTER FROM OUTER SPACE (1958)

THE MAGICIAN (1958)

NOT OF THIS EARTH (1957)

THE COURT JESTER (1956)

FORBIDDEN PLANET (1956)

GIANT (1956)

GODZILLA (1956)

INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS (1956)

THIS ISLAND EARTH (1955)

GOG (1954)

INVADERS FROM MARS (1954)

IT CAME FROM OUTER SPACE (1953)

THE LOST PLANET (1953)

*MEET MR. LUCIFER (1953)

THE WAR OF THE WORLDS (1953)

MY SON JOHN (1952)

RADAR MEN FROM THE MOON (1952)

RED PLANET MARS (1952)

ZOMBIES OF THE STRATOSPHERE (1952)

CAPTAIN VIDEO, MASTER OF THE STRATOSPHERE (1951)

*THE DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL (1951)

THE MAN FROM PLANET X (1951)

WHEN WORLDS COLLIDE (1951)

D.O.A. (1950)

*THE NEXT VOICE YOU HEAR (1950)

ROCKETSHIP X-M (1950)

THE INSPECTOR GENERAL (1949)

KING OF THE ROCKETMEN (1949)

THE THIRD MAN (1949)

NIGHTMARE ALLEY (1947)

THE TREASURE OF THE SIERRA MADRE (1947)

THE PURPLE MONSTER STRIKES (1945)

COBRA WOMAN (1944)

THE LODGER (1944)

NONE BUT THE LONELY HEART (1944)
I WALKED WITH A ZOMBIE (1943)

DON WINSLOW OF THE NAVY (1942)

I MARRIED A WITCH (1942) THE DEVIL COMMANDS (1941)

THE MALTESE FALCON (1941)

*FLASH GORDON CONQUERS THE UNIVERSE (1940)

BUCK ROGERS (1939)

DAREDEVILS OF THE RED CIRCLE (1939)

THE PHANTOM CREEPS (1939)

*THE WIZARD OF OZ (1939)

FIGHTING DEVIL DOGS (1938)

FLASH GORDON’S TRIP TO MARS (1937)

THE MAN WHO COULD WORK MIRACLES (1937)

TIM TYLER’S LUCK (1937)

TOPPER (1937)

THE DEVIL DOLL (1936)

FLASH GORDON (1936)

THE INVISIBLE RAY (1936)

THINGS TO COME (1936)

UNDERSEA KINGDOM (1936)

THE LOST CITY (1935)

MURDER BY TELEVISION (1935)

*THE PHANTOM EMPIRE (1935)

GABRIEL OVER THE WHITE HOUSE (1933)

THE INVISIVIBLE MAN (1933)

KING KONG (1933)

FRANKENSTEIN (1932)

ISLAND OF LOST SOULS (1932)

M (1931)

BLUE ANGEL (1930)

METROPOLIS (1926)

THE LAST LAUGH (1924)

*THE CRAZY RAY (aka PARIS QUI DORT) (1923-Fr.)

THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI (1919)

FILM LIST

ALIEN (1979)

ATLANTIS, THE LOST CONTINENT (1961)

ATTACK OF THE 50-FOOT WOMAN (1958)

A BEAUTIFUL MIND (2001)

BEETLEJUICE (1988)

BEING THERE (1979)

BETTER OFF DEAD (1985)

BEWITCHED (2005)

BIG (1988)

BLUE ANGEL (1930)

A BOY AND HIS DOG (1975)

THE BOY WHO COULD FLY (1986)

THE BRAIN FROM PLANET AROUS (1958)

BROTHER FROM ANOTHER PLANET (1984)

BRUCE ALMIGHTY (2003)

THE CABINET OF DR. CALIGARI (1919)

CAPRICORN ONE (1979)

CAPTAIN NEMO AND THE UNDERWATER CITY (1970)

CARRIE (1976)

CHARLY (1968)

CHICKEN LITTLE (2005)

CHICKEN RUN (2000)

CHILDREN OF THE DAMNED (1964)

CLICK (2006)

CLOCKSTOPPERS (2002)

A CLOCKWORK ORANGE (1971)

COBRA WOMAN (1944)

CONSTANTINE (2005)

THE COURT JESTER (1956)

THE CRAZY RAY (aka PARIS QUI DORT) (1923-Fr.)

CREATOR (1985)

THE DAY AFTER TOMORROW (2004)

THE DAY THE EARTH STOOD STILL (1951)

THE DEAD ZONE (1984)

THE DEVIL COMMANDS (1941)

THE DEVIL DOLL (1936)

THE DEVIL’S RAIN (1975)

D.O.A. (1950)

DON’T SAY A WORD (2002)

DROP DEAD FRED (1991) DR. GOLDFOOT AND THE BIKINI MACHINE (1965)

DR. GOLDFOOT AND THE GIRL BOMBS (1966)

DR. STRANGELOVE: OR, HOW I LEARNED TO STOP WORRYING AND LOVE THE BOMB (1964)

DREAMSCAPE (1984)

EARTH GIRLS ARE EASY (1988)

ELLA ENCHANTED (2004)

END OF DAYS (1999)

ESCAPE FROM NEW YORK (1981)

EVAN ALMIGHTY (2007)

THE EXORCIST (1973)

FAHRENHEIT 451 (1967)

FAHRENHEIT 9/11 (2004)

FIELD OF DREAMS (1987)

FINAL (2002)

THE FINAL CUT (2004)

THE FISHER KING (1990)

FLESH GORDON (1974-X)

FLIGHT OF THE NAVIGATOR (1986)

THE FLIM FLAM MAN (1967)

FOOLS’ PARADE (1971)

FORBIDDEN PLANET (1956)

THE FORGOTTEN (2004)

FORREST GUMP (1994)

FRAILTY (2002)

FRANKENSTEIN (1932)

GABRIEL OVER THE WHITE HOUSE (1933)

GHOSTBUSTERS (1984)

GIANT (1956)

GLADIATOR (1998)

GODZILLA (1956)

GOG (1954)

THE GREAT ESCAPE (1963)

THE HANDMAID’S TALE (1990)

HEARTS IN ATLANTIS (2002)

HIGH PLAINS DRIFTER (1973)

HOLOCAUST 2000 (1978)

THE HOLY MOUNTAIN (1973)

HOUSE ON HAUNTED HILL (1958)

I MARRIED A WITCH (1942) I MARRIED A MONSTER FROM OUTER SPACE (1958)

I WALKED WITH A ZOMBIE (1943)

THE IMPOSTER (2002)

AN INCONVENIENT TRUTH (2006) INDEPENDENCE DAY (1996)

THE INSPECTOR GENERAL (1949)

INVADERS FROM MARS (1953)

INVASION OF THE BODY SNATCHERS (1956)

THE INVISIBLE (2007) THE INVISIBLE MAN (1933)

THE INVISIBLE RAY (1936)

ISLAND OF LOST SOULS (1932)

IT CAME FROM OUTER SPACE (1953)

JESUS CHRIST, SUPERSTAR (1973)

KING KONG (1933)

KING OF HEARTS (1966)

K-PAX (2002)

KRULL (1983)

THE LAST LAUGH (1924)

THE LAST MAN ON EARTH (1964)

THE LAST PICTURE SHOW (1971)

THE LAST STARFIGHTER (1984)

THE LAST WAVE (1979)

THE LATHE OF HEAVEN (1980-PBS)

LEGEND (1985)

LIFEFORCE (1985)

LILO AND STITCH (2002)

THE LODGER (1944)

THE LONELY GUY (1984)

LOOSE CANNONS (1990)

LORD OF THE FLIES (1963)

THE LOST SKELETON OF CADAVRA (2004)

M (1931)

THE MACHINIST (2004)

THE MAGIC CHRISTIAN (1970)

THE MAGICIAN (1958)

MAKING MR. RIGHT (1987)

THE MALTESE FALCON (1941)

THE MAN FROM PLANET X (1951)

THE MAN WITH TWO BRAINS (1983)

THE MAN WHO COULD WORK MIRACLES (1937)

THE MAN WHO FELL TO EARTH (1976)

THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE (1962)

MARS ATTACKS (1996)

MARS NEEDS WOMEN (1968)

MASS APPEAL (1985)

MASTER OF THE WORLD (1961)

THE MATRIX (1998)

MEN IN BLACK (1997)

MEET MR. LUCIFER (1953)

METROPOLIS (1926)

MORONS FROM OUTER SPACE (1985)

MURDER BY TELEVISION (1935)

THE MUSIC MAN (1962)

MY SON JOHN (1952)

MY SCIENCE PROJECT (1985)

THE NATURAL (1984)

THE NEXT VOICE YOU HEAR (1950)

NIGHT OF THE COMET (1984)

NIGHT OF THE LIVING DEAD (1968)

NIGHTMARE ALLEY (1947)

NO SUCH THING (2002)

NONE BUT THE LONELY HEART (1944)

NORTHFORK (2003)

NOT OF THIS EARTH (1957)

THE NUTTY PROFESSOR (1963)

THE OMEGA MAN (1971)

THE OMEN (1976)



Source by Alvin Miller

TEACHING COMPETENCY AND TEACHER JOB SATISFACTION AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

*Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana **Luciana.M.Z

True education, it must be noted at the outset, is a powerful force in bringing about desired change.  It is education and education alone that can bring about changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, appreciations and understanding things around us.

            The definitions of Education formulated by a group of experts for the dictionary of education stressed two important things in education.  Firstly, education is a process, which should develop the required ability, attitude and other forms of behaviour for the full development of the personality.

            Undoubtedly any philosopher can comment that the ultimate aim of any education is to make a man of good character and useful citizen of the universe.  This of education we can achieve through the quality of education, quality of teachers and quality of teaching learning process.  Other things remaining, the quality of education largely learning transaction cannot be undertaken in vacuum but it is positively directed action, for which teachers are to be endeavor with satisfaction towards a job and the need of possessing the quality change-prone.  This is the right time to focus the significance of Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness among the Primary School Teachers.

            The keystone in the educational edifice is doubtless the teacher.  On him depends much more than any other, the progress and prosperity of children.  Nobody can effectively take his place or influence children in the manner and to the degree; it is possible, for him alone to do.  It is strongly believed that to be a teacher is to be the member of a holy order.

            The Secondary Education Commission (1953) defined that ‘we are however, convinced that most important factor in the comtemplated educational reconstruction is the teacher – his quality, his educational qualifications, his professional training and the place he occupies in the school as well as in the community.  The reputation of a school and its influence on the life of the community invariably depend on the kind of teachers working in it.’

            Similar views were expressed by the Indian Education Commission (1964 – 66) regarding the role of the teacher.  The commission opined that ‘of all different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence and character of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant’.

            ‘Schools are the nurseries of the Nation’ and ‘Teachers are the Architects of the future’ are no mere figurative expressions but truthful statements, as significant as they are suggestive.  Victories are won, peace is preserved, progress is achieved, civilization is built up and history is made in educational institutions, which are the seed beds of culture, where children in whose hands quiver the destiny of the future, are trained and from their ranks will come out when they grow up, statesman and soldiers, patriots and philosophers who will determine the progress of the land.  In their attitude to life and their approach to problems they will bear the imprint and the influence of the training they received at the hands of their teachers.  The teacher’s role is thus as important as his responsibility is onerous.

            ‘The good teacher must enlighten by his example, show wisdom in his discourse and restraint by his silence; he must help the willing with a welcoming encouragement; overcome the recalcitrant with a patient determination and check the exhibitionist with a reasonable superciliousness.  What he stands for, important for all times, is of paramount importance in the deepening blackout of spiritual and intellectual values by which our age is oppressed’ – C.E.M.Joad.

            The imperative that the entire process of teaching learning transaction depend on the efficiency of a teacher, who is in turn able to manifest potentialities of a child into actuality, be accepted with no hesitation.  Teaching learning process cannot be undertaken in vacuum but it is a positively directed action, for which teachers are to be endowed with teaching competency.  There has been an enormous amount of research which could answer to such questions as – what teaching behaviours are related to pupil out comes in different areas of classroom learning?  In what way they are related.  What are the characteristics of effective ad ineffective teachers?  How can teaching behaviours be incorporated in teachers during their training?

          Lot of research efforts have been directed on teaching competency but unfortunately much attention of research is not drawn to correlate teaching competency in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.  Rao, R.B. (1989) says that ‘the quality or effectiveness of teachers is considered to be associated with his satisfaction towards his profession, his satisfaction with his values.  Fontana, D. (1986) regarded that ‘if the teacher is too rigid or has a doctrinaire belief of that his methods are right and those of any one who disagrees with him are wrong, then he will be depriving his children of a range of possible learning experiences, to their disadvantage and to his own’.  Thus, it is clear that an effective and competent teacher will achieve the desired learning outcomes, provided if he satisfied in his profession.   But no significant efforts are found to study the competency in relation to job satisfaction among teachers.        

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          The term Job Satisfaction is generally used in organizational endeavor in business management.  One of the senses signs of deteriorating conditions in an organization is low job satisfaction (Keith Devi, 1993).  Job Satisfaction is the favourableness or unfavourableness with which employees view their work (Bruneberg, 1976).  It signifies the amount of agreement between one’s expectations of the job and the rewards to the job provides.  Job satisfaction is concerned with a person or a group in the organization.  Job Satisfaction can be applicable more to parts of an individual’s job.  If each person is highly satisfied with his job then only it will be considered as group job satisfaction.

          Generally job satisfaction is related with number of employees variables such as turnover, absence, age, occupation and size of the organization in which he works.  The degree of satisfaction of job is largely depends on satisfaction of employee variables.  According to Garton (1976), employee’s satisfaction and morale are attitudinal variables that reflect positive or negative feelings about particular persons or situations, satisfaction when applied to work context of teaching seems to refer to the extent to which a teacher can meet individual, personal and professional needs as an employees (Strauss, 1974).

          Maslow (1970), Herberg (1959), Hay and Miskel (1978) and others proposed the theories on job satisfaction.  According to Maslow ‘a person’s satisfaction is determined by the fulfillment of his five levels of need’.  Herberg’s motivation hygiene theory assumes that two variables determine a person satisfaction.  (1) Internal factors like achievement, recognition etc., and (2) external factors such as salary and interpersonal relation.  Relationships Lartie (1975) believed that teaching continues to be rather limited in its available extrinsic rewards and that if teacher job satisfaction is to be increased efforts are to be made to improve the teaching situations.  According to Edward and others (1976) a high performance leads to high job satisfaction, which in turn becomes feedback to influence future performance.  Better performance leads to high rewards.  This improvement in satisfaction is because of employee’s feeling that they are receiving rewards in proportion to their performance on the other hand, if rewards one such as inadequate for one’s level of performance, dissatisfaction access.

          The Indian Education Commission (1964-66) also states that ‘nothing is more important than providing teachers best professional preparation and creating satisfactory conditions of work in which they carefully be effective.’  Sand Frankiewiz (1979) found a positive relationship between job satisfaction and effective teacher behaviour.  In the light of the above the theoretical framework of teacher job satisfaction may be considered as one of the important factors, which can enhance teaching competency.

Dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Of many dimensions, the researcher considered the following dimensions for measuring Teacher Job Satisfaction.  They are (1) Professional; (2) Teaching Learning; (3) Innovation; and – (4) Inter-personal relations.

          Professional related to job security and social prestige, moulding the young minds, getting appreciation from others, reaching problems of the students.

          Teaching learning refer to problems of the students, new situations, successfully managing the classes, students active participation in the classes, innovative technique in teaching, systematic plan of the work.

          Innovation relates to creativity, innovative technique in teaching, participation of cultural activities, co-curricular and social welfare activities.

          Inter-personal relations refer to relations with colleagues, parents, students, higher authorities or any personnel confined to school.

Measurement of Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Job Satisfaction measuring procedures appear to be complicated at a first glance.  It seems simple to go to the employees and get data from them and then interpret.  But experiences are shown that careless procedural class can limit seriously the validity and usefulness of the survey.  Keen attention should be given to question construction, maintenance of anonymity for employees and sampling procedures (Donald and Charlies, 1975).  Even in Education field it is very difficult to measure the teacher job satisfaction.

          After careful observation of the literature it is fund that teacher’s job satisfaction can be measured mainly in two ways.  The first one is observation and interviews; and the other is use of tests including inventories and writing scales developed by some psychologists and educational researches like Crook, Maslach, Herhier and others, and Gaba Teacher Job Satisfaction Scale, Gupta and Srivatsava – teacher job satisfaction scale, Lodahl and Kejher’s Job involvement scale and Job Satisfaction scale developed by Dixit are some of the tools available for measuring job satisfaction.  However, they are context specific and may not be suitable for the present study.  Hence, the researcher developed a Teacher Job Satisfaction self-rating scale.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          Change-Proneness, though quite recent in origin, with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  It is the tendency to accept anything which is new, novel, to be imbibed in their style of work.  It is the state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause which may promote and result at expected rewards or fail to produce unexpected revolts (Uday Koundinya, 1999).

          Change is the order of day.  Everybody should acdept this truth and those changes too.  From ancient times, whenever a new discovery, a strange concept and a novel theory has proposed, there has been an ‘up-surge’ among others.  As Vivekananda rightly quoted ‘every new activity evidently has to pass through the three stages – bitter ridicule, sever opposition and final acceptance..  To accept that earth is round but not flat also requires much commotion in the minds of people.  Members of ‘Flat earth society opposed the truth severely.  Accepted truth are really difficult to be wiped off from the minds and the new changes in those areas really take a long time and they evidently be the butt of ridicule.

          Helio Centric theory took a long time to be accepted and it was severely opposed and bitterly refused by persons who accept Geo-centric theory by that time.  Atomic division in Chemistry, Darwin’s theory of Evolution in Bilogy, Sigmond Freud’s contributions to psychology all these are not at all exceptions for the basic truth.  This truth holds good even in social sciences and in cultural revival.  Social changes which totally alter tradition and cultural heritage evidently depend upon the sudden changes.  Sudden change but not slow transition, revolution but not evolution out right change but not graded stepwise modification is the predominant nature of change-proneness.  Many scientific truths which emerged as a result of eminent thinking by great scientists told to replace established facts up to the day and required long time to be accepted.  All these are clear vivid and valid examples.  Change or alter his behavior, attitudes, feelings and thoughts by being flexible rather restraining one-self to be rigid (Mukhopadyay, 1980).

          If at all some people who accept and invite such crucial, vital changes are not there in those days, these mightily truths may not have emerged out to be existent before us not.  ‘The tendency of possessing an inclination to new novel, strange, at times totally afresh, baffling inventions and innovations which can even shake and wipe of old existing traditional views is ‘change proneness’ (Uday Koundinya, 1996).  Millder (1967) for the first time has coined the concept of change-proneness is the congregations effect of curiosity, open mindedness and mental flexibility.  Miller rightly gave the comprehensive nature of the concept.  Radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire, being shrewd and proneness in thought, inquisiteness, all these traits facilitate change-proneness. 

Rigidity and Flexibility:

          The change-proneness evidently rely upon two opposing ideological aspects rigidity and flexibility.  A clear understanding of the two aspects rigidity and flexibility, will evidently help the investigator by throwing enormous light on the concept ‘change-proneness’.  The main hurdle to accept a new theory and invite a novel, sudden change is rigidity.   Warner defined ‘Rigidity’ as a lack of variability in a response or lack of adaptability in behavior.

          In life situations, some people are rigid in their behavior, some are not.  The same people, who are rigid in one type of situation, may be non-rigid in other situations.  For example some may be good at problem solving in the science laboratory but may not apply the problem solving techniques to their day to day social problems in the community (Klausner, 1972).  The dictionary meaning of rigidity is a personality trait characterized by inability to change one’s attitudes opinions or manner of adjustment (Atkinson).

          From various studies it seems that there are the few basic factors, which go to make up this rigid tendency.  Goldstein defined rigidity – as adherence to a performance that is inadequate for the present task i.e., a rigid term does not shift from one performance to another as required by the fresh to be fulfilled.  Research tries to relate problem solving rigidity with attitudinal dispositions of persons.  He stated that it is the inability to change one’s set or attitude.

          Wolfert opined – rigidity is restricted range of behavior as this type of rigidity prevails in human minds; they act as stumbling blocks and hurdles.  They approve one to have a new concept alter the type of learning, to invite change in the approaches.

          The opposing ideological aspect for rigidity is ‘flexibility is the personality trait characterized by ability to change one’s set, opinion line of thinking and process of adjustment.  Exhibiting inclination to a new and strange thing will be possible and it is due to flexibility.  In life situations, some people are flexible in their behavior some are not.  The people who are flexible on one occasion may not be much flexible on other occasions.  They at times with flexible out alter their responses and behavioural patterns.  But they decline at time to be flexible and then they stick to old ideologies.

          Flexibility is the outstanding quality of exhortative tendency and ability to change one’s set or attitude and opinions even one should be effective understanding line of thinking and even process of adjustment.  The concept of rigidity and flexibility and different definitions has been advanced by psychologists in accordance with their points.  The definitions may be prepared from psychomotor developmental, attitudinal intellectual and behavior aspects.

          Change-Proneness, though quite recent in origin with astonishing rapidity has become almost a catch word.  It can be defined as a tendency to accept anything which is new, novel to be imbibed in their style of work.  Change-Proneness is state of acceptance of new and creative ideas, which might at times create criticism and failure or result at appreciation and success.  It is a sense of satisfaction, commitment and success in the quest for new techniques, ideals and methods.  Change-Proneness is defined as a state of flux and dilemma brought about by devotion to a cause or a way of life which may promote to result at expected rewards or fails to produce unexpected revolts.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          How a teacher should be, is a puzzling question.  Teacher at his best should be active not reactive, must strive rather than submit he must be author of his behavior rather than have ti dictated by authority.  The teacher should perform his duties in his own style.  The pattern of functioning of teachers reveals the existence of two categories of teachers.

Relation between Teacher Job Satisfaction Teacher Change-Proneness:

          Accomplishment of the goals of education and the objectives of teaching is possible when teachers are competent in teaching with satisfaction in their profession.  These two variables are conceptually independent and practically interactive.  B.R.Rao (1989) rightly pointed out that ‘the quality or effectiveness of a teacher is considered to be associated with his attitudes towards his profession, his satisfaction with his values and adjustment in the job and professional interest.’

          Similarly Dr.D.S.Kothari (1964-66) advocates ‘of all the different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competency character and job satisfaction of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant’. 

Reviewed the previous investigations made on Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness in India and Abroad.  These researchers (viz., investigations made on Job Satisfaction and Change-Proneness subjects) helped the investigator in planning, defining and delimiting the present research study.  These reviews have also helpful in deciding the procedure of the present study and the interpretation of the findings.

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

Studies Abroad:

Many research studies made on Teacher Job Satisfaction from different angles with different independent variables.

Anna F.Lobosco and Dianna L.Newman (1992) studied ‘Teaching Special Needs Populations and Teacher Job Satisfaction’.  Teachers’ perceptions of their jobs are strongly related to their perceptions of their students. This article confirms what one might expect: Working with students who are gifted and talented positively predicts job satisfaction, whereas working with students who have learning difficulties has a negative effect. Yet teachers ‘self-reports of general job satisfaction reverse when asked about how the reality of their teaching experience compares to ideal conditions. This has clear implications for urban school districts involved in massive mainstreaming efforts. Teacher preparation and the impending merger of general and special education are discussed. (Anna.Lobosco and Dianna L.Newman, ‘Teaching Special Needs Populations and Teacher Job Satisfaction’, Journal Urban Education, Vol.27, No.1, Pp.21-31, 1992, DOI:10.1177/ 0042085992027001003 (Sage Publications).

          Garett, R.M. (1999) studied ‘Teacher Job Satisfaction in Developing Countries’.  The study disclosed that the results from a literature review that examined teacher job satisfaction in developing versus developed nations. The review involved computer searches using keywords, manual searches of databases, follow-up of references from papers, requests to research institutions worldwide, and searches of dissertations. Overall, most work has been focused on secondary school teachers. Issues related to elementary teachers and principals have not received much attention. There was no generally agreed upon definition of job satisfaction or standardization of instruments used in the available literature. What little research had been done in developing nations was based on a set of theoretical assumptions that had been developed from findings in developed nations. The evidence available from mature educational systems identified a complex picture in which job satisfaction, itself a multi-faceted concept, was closely related to the other key factors of work life complexity and work centrality. Stress was produced, manifested, and coped with differently in different societies. The role played by stress in the normal working life of teachers in developing countries was a little-understood area (ERIC – ED459150, 1999-10-00,  U.S. Department of Education publication.)

Beverly M.Klecker, William E.Loadman (1999) studied ‘Male Elementary School Teachers’ Ratings of Job Satisfaction by Years of Teaching Experience’.  This study discloses that Teaching in American public schools in grades K-12 is largely a female pursuit. Discussions of the diversification of the American teaching force, have generally focused on two areas: (1) the under-representation of people of color in the teaching force and (2) the under-representation of females in administrative positions (Montecinos & Nielsen, 1997). Few researchers have chosen to focus on the need for more males in the teaching force. The scarcity of male teachers as student role models is a subject of concern at all levels, but it is of particular concern in the early grades (Wood and Hoag, 1993). National statistics of teacher demographics indicate that the national teaching population is 72% female and 28% male. However, the gender statistics are even more disproportionate at the elementary level. Fewer than 2% of pre-K/Kindergarten and 14.6% of elementary teachers are male (Snyder & Hoffman, & Geddes, 1996). This lack of male role models in the early years of schooling may be a limiting factor in recruiting more males into this profession. ( Questia e-Journal, Vol.119, 1999).

Zembylas, Michalinos; Papanastasiou, Elena (2004) studied ‘Job satisfaction among school teachers in Cyprus’.  The research report examines job satisfaction and motivation among teachers in Cyprus – a small developing country in the Eastern Mediterranean. An adapted version of the questionnaire developed by the “Teacher 2000 Project” was translated into Greek and used for the purposes of this study that had a sample of 461 K-12 teachers and administrators. The findings showed that, unlike other countries in which this questionnaire was used, Cypriot teachers chose this career because of the salary, the hours, and the holidays associated with this profession. The study analyzes how these motives influence the level of satisfaction held by the Cypriot teachers. (Journal of Educational Administration, Emarald Publishing Ltd., Volume 42, Number 3, 2004 , pp. 357-374(18).

Ronit (2001) studied ‘The Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction’.  This study disclosed the effects of principals’ leadership style (transformational or transactional), principals’ decision-making strategy (autocratic versus participative), and teachers’ occupation perceptions on teacher satisfaction from the job. More specifically, it attempts to find out how much of the variation in teachers’ job satisfaction can be attributed to their perceptions of their occupation, as compared to their perceptions about their principals’ leadership style and decision-making strategy. A quantitative questionnaire using Likert-type scales was administered to 930 teachers in Israeli schools, of whom 745 responded. Path analysis was used to explain teacher job satisfaction by the exogenous variables. The most salient finding was that teachers’ occupation perceptions strongly affected their satisfaction. Principals’ transformational leadership affected teachers’ satisfaction both directly and indirectly through their occupation perceptions. Implications of the study are discussed in relation to supervisors and principals, as well as to policy makers at the government level.  (Ronit Bogler, ‘The Influence of Leadership Style on Teacher Job Satisfaction’, Journal of Educational Administration Quarterly, Vol.37, No.5, Pp.662-683, DOI:10.1177/00131610121969460).

Judith Kleinfeld; G. Williamson and Mc.Diarmid, (1986) studied The Job Satisfaction of Alaska’s Isolated Rural Teachers with their work life’.  This study examines the sources of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among 304 teachers randomly selected from small isolated schools in rural Alaska. These teachers are highly satisfied about their relationship with students and their pay benefits. Large numbers of teachers are dissatisfied, however, with community amenities, their students’ academic progress, and especially, school district management. Most of these teachers teach in Indian and Eskimo villages; yet they feel that interorganizational relationships with the district office cause them more stress than cross-cultural relationships with the students and community. In many isolated rural schools, high teacher turnover erodes the quality of education rural students receive. Hartrick, Hills, arid Wallin [3] found that six out of ten teachers employed in rural British Columbia were not teaching in the same district five years later. A recent study [5] of teachers in rural Alaska found that majorities have taught at their present schools less than two years.  Since the sources of teacher dissatisfaction depend on the specific conditions of the schools in which they teach, research on rural teachers’ satisfaction with their work life should describe with some care the particular community and school context.  Most teachers in rural Alaska work in isolated Eskimo or Indian villages of a few hundred residents. While a handful of these communities are on the highway system, most are accessible only by light aircraft. These small communities offer few of the amenities teachers can take for granted elsewhere. While some school districts or communities provide modern teacher housing, in others teachers must rent cabins or plywood shacks.  The conclusions of the study stated that Alaska’s rural teachers to express satisfaction with their pay and benefits and to express discontent with the hardships of living in isolated Native villages without many amenities.  Similarly, the number of teachers who express dissatisfaction with the distant district office was unexpected. (Research in Rural Education, Volume-3, November 3, 1986, USA, e-publication).

Chung-Lim Ho and Wing-Tung Au  of Chinese University of Hong Kong (2006) studied  ‘Teaching Satisfaction Scale’ to measure Job Satisfaction of Teachers in China.  In the present study proposes a teaching satisfaction measure and examines the validity of its scores. The measure is based on the Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS). Scores on the five-item Teaching Satisfaction Scale (TSS) were validated on a sample of 202 primary and secondary school teachers and favorable psychometric properties were found. As hypothesized, teaching satisfaction as measured by the TSS correlated positively with self-esteem but negatively with psychological distress and teaching stress. The TSS scores had good incremental validity for psychological distress and teaching stress beyond earlier Job Satisfaction Scales. The TSS offers a simple, direct, reliable, and valid assessment of teaching satisfaction. Future development of the TSS is discussed (Educational and Psychological Measurement (e-Journal),Vol. 66, No.1,172-185(2006), DOI: 10.1177/00131644052785 73).

Sonnie S.Billingsley and Lawrence H.Cross (1992) studied ‘Predictors of Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Intent to Stay in Teaching: A Comparison of General and Special Educators’. The primary purpose of this study was to identify variables that influence teachers’ commitment and job satisfaction among both general and special educators. A secondary purpose was to determine the extent to which these commitment and satisfaction variables influence teachers’ intent to stay in teaching. A questionnaire using primarily extant measures was sent to a random sample of 558 special educators and 589 general educators in Virginia. Completed questionnaires were received from 83% of both samples. Cross validated regression results suggest that work related variables, such as leadership support, role conflict, role ambiguity, and stress, are better predictors of commitment and job satisfaction than are demographic variables. Generally, the findings were similar for general and special educators. Implications for educational agencies are addressed (Sonnie S.Billingsley and Lawrence H.Cross, ‘Predictors of Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Intent to Stay in Teaching: A Comparison of General and Special Educators’, Journal of Special Education, USA, Vol.25, No.4, Pp.453-471, DOI:10.1177/ 002246699202500404).

Butt, Graham & Lance, Ann (2005) studied ‘Secondary Teacher Workload and Job Satisfaction: Do Successful Strategies for Change Exist?.  This report analyses the views of secondary school teachers involved in the Transforming the School Workforce: Pathfinder Project–a project designed to address issues of teacher workload and job satisfaction. The initiative was launched in 2002 by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) to enable 32 pilot schools to explore ways in which they might restructure their working practices and reduce teacher workload. Funding was provided for schools to benefit from consultancy support, the training of head teachers, the employment of additional teaching assistants, the provision of ICT hardware and software, the training of bursars/school managers and for capital build projects. Here we concentrate on the evaluation of the Pathfinder Project with particular reference to possible changes in workload and job satisfaction of secondary teachers in the 12 secondary schools involved in the project. The reported weekly and holiday hours worked by secondary teachers are analyzed across the duration of the project, as are patterns of evening and weekend work. Teachers’ views on job satisfaction are also analyzed in conjunction with their perspectives on workload, culminating in a discussion of their solutions to the problems of excessive workload. The relationship between teacher workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance is explored within the context of the future modernization of the entire school workforce (Butt, Graham; Lance, Ann, ‘Secondary Teacher Workload and Job Satisfaction: Do Successful Strategies for Change Exist?, Journal of Educational Management Administration & Leadership, Vol.33, No.4, Pp.401-422, 2005)

Studies in India:

          The investigations made in this country on Teacher Job Satisfaction on various nook corners with the help of demographic variables by using the statistical procedure to obtain the results according to their needs.

          Lavinga (1974) took a sample of 1600 and find that female teachers were more satisfaied than male teachers.

          Muthaiah (1981) and Meera Dixit (1984) findings confirms the same.

          In the studies of Virachari, S (1987), Bhandarkar (1980), Gupta (1980), Girens Rebay (1988), primary, secondary school teachers and college teachers are investigated.  Bhandarkar, Rebay found a positive relation between age, experience of Job satisfaction.  There is no significant difference to sex or level of education and job satisfaction.  Regarding pay and supervision the teachers are dissatisfied.  Gupta states that marital status; age and experience were not associated with job satisfaction.  Rebay states that not only the gender, marital status, age, qualifications but also the location of the schools have no relationship with job satisfaction and at the same time the experience and salaries of the teachers have a significant relationship with job satisfaction.

          While studying job satisfaction of graduate teachers in Coimbatore, Sekar, G. and Ranganathan (1988) found that most of the teachers were satisfied with their nature of work, personnel policies, salary, personal achievement and their relationship with superiors and colleagues, working conditions in schools, concluded that caste, place of work and mother tongue were significantly related to job satisfaction.  Male graduate trained teachers, single-family teachers, more experienced and government school-teachers, were more satisfied than others; age and marital status, however, had no relationship with job satisfaction.  Economic and political values were found to be correlates of job satisfaction.

          Clemence, S.M. (1989) found that role conflict affected job satisfaction of women teachers but social dimension of value influenced their job satisfaction rather favourably.

          Naik, G.C. (1990) found that ad hoc teaching assistants of the M.S. University, Baroda, were satisfied with their jobs mainly because of their favourable attitude towards the teaching profession, financial consideration and the facilities which they were getting for further studies; marital status, age, experience and gender did not affect their level of job satisfaction; leadership qualities of heads of institutions promoted job satisfaction, and group goals and objectives were essential parameters in determining the job satisfaction of teachers.  Sex, experience and background variables had no bearing on job satisfaction.

          Ray, S. (1992) concluded that the mental health of teachers was positively correlated with job satisfaction and attitude towards pupils. 

          Reddy B.P., (1989) in his study found that over-qualified primary schoolteachers had low job satisfaction while teachers younger in age had higher level of job satisfaction, which had positive correlation with attitude towards teaching and job involvement.

          Saxena, N. (1990) while studying a sample of higher secondary schoolteachers in Madhya Pradesh, did not find any difference due to gender, stream (science or arts), experience and other variables on job satisfaction.

          Where Naseema (1994) studied Teaching competency of Secondary School physical science teachers in relation to their satisfaction of teaching the subject.  Naseema and Ayshabi (1995) studied satisfaction as a predictor of perceived teaching competence. 

          Sinha and Prabhat (1993) examined the relationship of job satisfaction with ego strength of secondary school teachers. 

          Sudhira (1994) investigated teacher job satisfaction and Job Stress of Secondary School Physical Education Teaches.

          Annamalai Abraham (1999) studied job satisfaction and teacher effectiveness of college teachers.  Godiyal and Srivastava (1995) made a study of teachers’ work involvement, job involvement and their job satisfaction.  Baruah studied role conflict and its correlation with job satisfaction of secondary school women teachers in Dibrugarh of Assam. 

          Gupta (1995) made a correlational study of job satisfaction and their teaching effectiveness.

          Annamalai (1999) studied job satisfaction of school teachers in relation to certain selected variables viz., (i) attitude towards administration and teaching and (ii) adjustment.

          Butt (1997) made a correlational study of job stress, job involvement and job satisfaction.

          Chandraiah (1994) attempted to study job satisfaction of college teachers as an effect of age.

          Dixit (1993) aimed to analyze the effect of sex on different factors – intrinsic (Physical and Psychological) and extrinsic (salary etc., benefits) – job satisfaction among primary teachers.

          Shahapur et al. (1996) looked into the satisfaction of different need areas (Physical, Social, Esteem, Autonomy and Self-actualization) in relation to the two styles of leadership (initiating structure and consideration) among college teachers in Mysore.

          Kulsun (1998) wanted identify whether job satisfaction of school teaches varies with their perception of school organizational climate or not.

          Begum (1994) examined the relationship of job satisfaction of Kerala college Teachers with some socio-demographic and personality variables.  Das and Panda (1995) aimed at finding out the job satisfaction of college and higher secondary teachers in terms of their sex and experience.  Ausekar (1996) compared the job satisfaction among teachers working in government and private secondary schools.  Thaker (1996) designed to know whether the government and non-government secondary school Principals differ in their job satisfaction.

          Thaker (1996) studied the relationship between the Saurashtra secondary school Principals’ job satisfaction and gender, age, experience, qualification, marital status, type of schools, residential area and geographical locale. 

          Reddy and Babu (1995) analyzed the level of job satisfaction of male and female teachers of residential and non-residential schools.  Jyothi and Reddy (1998) attempted to study the professional satisfaction of teachers working in the schools for the hearing impaired in Andhra Pradesh.  Ratnappa (1998) studied the personal and professional satisfaction of women teachers of schools, colleges and universities in Andhra Pradesh.

TEACHER CHANGE-PRONENESS:

          In the post independence era, bringing change in educaton and revising qualitative improvement has been a major concern of the educational planners and administrators, with this intention quite a few new institutes and organizations were established with considerable investments at national and state levels.  As result they designed and diffused quite a large number of innovations in education.  The change was not, however, commensurate with the number of innovations and investments therein.  Hence only stray number of researches prevails in this field related to the concept of the change-proneness.  Change-Proneness indicates a person’s mental orientation towards change.  It is more a global concept than either of ‘cosmopolitans’ or ‘open mindednesses’, which are often used in early research studies with different connotation and in totally varied context.

Studies Abroad:

Susan L.Swars and Others (2009) studied ‘A Two-Dimensional Model of Teacher Retention and Mobility’.  In this mixed-methods study is a teacher-initiated, collaborative inquiry involving a professional development school (PDS) and a university. The investigation focused on teachers’ perceptions of teacher retention and mobility at their PDS. Participants were 134 teachers at a high-needs elementary school with data sources including surveys, interviews, and open-ended questionnaires. The findings clustered around two primary dimensions: (a) congruency of teachers’ beliefs and practices with organizational norms and (b) teachers’ relational needs and administrators’ willingness and ability to meet such needs. Although this study affirmed many of the findings in the extant literature, it also challenged others—namely, the links between teacher turnover and workplace conditions, student body characteristics, and student achievement. The recursive research design enabled the researchers to make accommodations in methodology in response to teachers’ and administrators’ concerns. The researchers documented these modifications and make recommendations for conducting inquiry in a PDS. (Susan L.Swars; Barbara Meyers; Lydia C.Mays and Brian Lack of Georgia State University, USA, ‘A Two-Dimensional Model of Teacher Retention and Mobility’Journal of Teacher Education, Vol.60, No.2, Pp.168-183, 2009, Sage Journals (online) DOI:10.1177/0022487108329116)

Andrew J.Wayne and others (2008) studied ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Development: Motives and Methods’.  According to the opinion of the authos that a strong base of research is needed to guide investments in teacher professional development (PD). This article considers the status of research on PD and articulates a particular direction for future work. Little is known about whether PD can have a positive impact on achievement when a program is delivered across a range of typical settings and when its delivery depends on multiple trainers. Despite a consensus in the literature on the features of effective PD, there is limited evidence on the specific features that make a difference for achievement. This article explains the benefits offered by experiments in addressing current research needs and—for those conducting and interpreting such studies—discusses the unique methodological issues encountered when experimental methods are applied to the study of PD.  (AndrewJ.Wayne,American Institutes for Research, Washington DC,; Kwang Suk Yoon; Peizhu; Stephanie Cronen and Michael S.Garet, ‘Experimenting with Teacher Professional Developmet: Motives and Methods’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.37, No.8, Pp.469-479, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0013189X08327154)

Gregory J.Palardy and Russel W.Rumberger(2008) studied ‘Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes, ad Instructional Practices for Student Learning’.  This study uses Early Childhood Longitudinal Study data to investigate the importance of three general aspects of teacher effects—teacher background qualifications, attitudes, and instructional practices—to reading and math achievement gains in first grade. The results indicate that compared with instructional practices, background qualifications have less robust associations with achievement gains. These findings suggest that the No Child Left Behind Act’s “highly qualified teacher” provision, which screens teachers on the basis of their background qualifications, is insufficient for ensuring that classrooms are led by teachers who are effective in raising student achievement. To meet that objective, educational policy needs to be directed toward improving aspects of teaching, such as instructional practices and teacher attitudes.  (Gregory J.Palardy and Russell W.Rumberger, University of California, ‘Teacher Effectiveness in First Grade: The importance of Background Qualifications, Attitudes and Instructional Practices for Student Learning’, USA, Journal of Educational Evaluation and Polic Analysis, Vol.30, No.2, Pp.111-140, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0162373708317680)

Karen Douglas (2009) studied ‘Sharpening our Focus in Measuring Classroom Instruction’.  According to the opinion of the Author that this commentary highlights convergent themes from four articles in the March 2009 issue of Educational Researcher on measuring classroom instruction. Classroom instruction is a complex enterprise that occurs at the intersection of teachers, students, and texts within the surrounding classroom, school, and community environments. Progress in studying the complexity of classroom instruction on a large scale relies on our ability to pose research questions at the appropriate levels of analysis and to attempt to answer the questions using rigorous methods. These articles contribute to this task by sharing theoretical and practical viewpoints based on systematic programs of mixed methods research. The value of this body of research is reinforced through evidence of its impact on teaching practices and student learning.  (Karen Douglas, International Reading Association, ‘Sharpening Our Focus in Measuring Classroom Instruction’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.38, No.7, Pp.518-521, 2009, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/0013189X09350881)

C.Day; P.Sammons and Q.Gu (2008) studied ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ lives, Work and Effectiveness: From Integration to Synergy’. The authors of this article discuss how a mixed-methods research team designed and conducted a 4-year study (Variations in Teachers’ Work and Lives and Their Effects on Pupils) that tracked 300 teachers in 100 schools in England over a 3-year fieldwork period. The authors discuss processes that led to new knowledge. Although mixed methods are becoming more popular, few published accounts describe in detail how researchers have moved beyond the use and integration of mixed methods to arrive at more synergistic understandings. The advantage of synergistic approaches is their consideration and combination of a greater range of data, resulting in more nuanced, authentic accounts and explanations of complex realities. (C.Day; P.Sammons and Q.Gu, University of Nottingham, ‘Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies in Research on Teachers’ lives, Work and Effectiveness: From Integration to Synergy’, Journal of Educational Researcher, Vol.37, No.6, Pp.330-342, 2008, Sage Publications (online) DOI:10.3102/ 0013189X08324091)

Kristie Jones Newton (2008) studied ‘An Extensive Analysis of Preservice Elementary Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions’.  The study of preservice elementary teachers’ knowledge of fractions is important because fractions are notoriously difficult to learn and teach. Unfortunately, studies of preservice teachers’ fraction knowledge are limited and have focused primarily on division. The present study included all four operations to provide a more comprehensive understanding of this knowledge. Because knowledge is complex, it was examined in five ways: computational skill, basic concepts, word problems, flexibility, and transfer. To further capture the complexity of knowledge, solution methods were examined for patterns that might reveal understandings and misconceptions. Data were gathered before and after a course designed to deepen pre-service teachers’ knowledge. Quantitative and qualitative shifts occurred during the semester, but flexibility and transfer were low. Implications for teacher education are discussed (Kristie Jones Newton, Temple University, An Extensive Analysis of Pre-service Elementary Teachers’ Knowledge of Fractions’, American Educational Research Journal, Vol.45, No.4, Pp.1080-1110, 2008, Sage Publications (online) 10.3102/ 0002831208320851)

Nanyang Technological University (2006) studied ‘Challenging the Paradign: Notes on developing an Indigenized Teacher Education Curriculum’.  As per the Author that while considerable attention is being paid to reforming education systems to prepare students for the challenges of globalization and a knowledge-based economy, teacher education models in the Asia Pacific remain insufficiently critiqued. There is an urgent need to rethink teacher education as, in spite of decades of investment and development, major problems of inequality, attrition, incomplete and inadequate learning continue to blight our education systems. It is proposed that teacher education needs to become more culturally authentic as teaching and learning are best viewed as culturally scripted activities. The utilization of indigenous knowledge will be central to this task. The article concludes with some suggestions for how the task may be started.  (S.Gopinathan, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, ‘Challenging the Paradign: Notes on developing an Indigenized Teacher Education Curriculum’, Journal of Improving Schools, Vol.9, No.3, Pp.261-272, 2008, Sage Publications: DOI: 10.1177/1365480206069020)

Lorenzo Cherubini (2009) studied ‘Reconciling the Tensions of New Teachers’ Socializaton into School Culture: A Review of Research’.  The study reviews the research from 1969 to 2005 describing pre-service candidates’ transition from student teacher to professional educator during their socialization into school culture. Despite the educational reforms in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia over the last three decades, this review argues that new teachers experience many of the same initial concerns that have been documented about beginning teachers for over 35 years. The paper also examines the core themes that emerged in each of the respective periods identified in the review, including: teachers’ perceptions of self (1969 to mid 1980s); professional sustainability (mid 1980s to late 1990s); and emerging identity during the process of their socialization into school culture (2000 to 2005). Based on this examination, the paper suggests that the tension between new teacher identity formation and socialization into school culture can be reconciled by a post-industrial perspective of how individuals formulate concepts of self. (Lorenzo Cherubini, Brock University, Canada, ‘Reconciling the Tensios of New Teachers’ Socialization into School Culture: A Review of the Research’, Journal of Issues in Educational Research, Vol.19, No.2, 2009.

Studies in India:

          Rao, D.S. (1967) made an attempt by conducting a study ‘An inquiry into the factors that contributes to the promotion or inhibition of educational innovations’ listed out a few factors, which influence and govern educational innovations.

          Aggarwal (1974) made his first effort in his direction by preparing a text on ‘innovation proneness’ in the line of Miller she found the clues on the text on innovative proneness as related significantly to various dimensions of teacher’s morale.

          Singh, T. (1977) in his doctoral study thoroughly discussed about adoption and dis-contribution of innovations in the preparation of secondary school teachers.  In India and listed out a few strategies to be adopted for bringing innovations which enable effective preparation of secondary school teachers who were to be flexible and adaptable and impact effective instruction.

          Mukhopadhyaya and Saxena (1980) in their research study ‘the factors contributing to teacher’s change proneness’ concluded that change-proneness has been found to be related significantly and positively to urban back ground, teachers relation with principal, satisfaction in teaching, rapport among teachers, perceived leadership behavior of the principal, attitude toward teaching profession, perceived status of teachers and job satisfaction.

          Bakshi, S.T. (1980) made an attempt to identify factors which hindered school improvement programme and to examine the possible relationships of some selected variables to the degree of adapatability of school.  He selected change-proneness of the school teachers and principals are of the variables along with organizational climate, teacher morale and leadership behavior of the principal.  The major observation was – school climate, teacher’s moral and change-proneness of teachers and principals did not significantly influence the school adaptability.

          Vinaitheerthan (1981) in his doctoral thesis concluded age of teachers, sex,  teaching experience and professional training influenced the state of dissonance of innovations, controlled climate significantly contributed to teaching learning process attitude to innovation, change-proneness and intimacy.  Open climate showed significant relationship with complexity conversation and change-proneness.

          Mukhopadhyaya (1981) with the help of multivariate analysis concluded that the change proneness of a teacher can be predicted to the tune of more than 59% variance by set of above mentioned variables.

          Rajkamal (1982) substantially listed out the factors affecting diffusion of innovations in secondary schools.

          In the field of research in the area of change-proneness, Mukhopadhyaya (1982) name was to be definitely reckoned with.  He constructed and standardized tool Mukhopadhyaya’s change-proneness inventory (MCPI).  The tool was administered on 60 secondary school teachers.  He computed split half reliability with the help of Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula.  It was noticed to be 0.82, which is significant 0.01 levels.  Chi-square test was carried out soon a 2 (innovative)/non-innovative schools, 3 good/moderate/poor scores of change-proneness).  Contingency table was found significant at 0.05 levels.  This research finding clearly indicates that change-proneness of teachers successfully differentiate innovative schools from the non-innovative schools.

          Dr.Udayagiri Nageswara Rao, in his study on Change-proneness among the primary school teachers as determining factor to meet the needs of hard-to-reach pupils concluded.  This study reveal that male teachers are highly change prone than female teachers; urban teachers are more change prone than their counterparts i.e., rural teachers.  Residential school teachers are more change-prone than non-residential school teachers.

          Strangely post-graduate trained teachers lag behind trained graduate teachers.  Teaching working in Municipal schools is ahead in possession of change-proneness than Missionary school teachers and teachers working in Mandal Parishad schools.

          The four aspects of CPDQ differ in the extent of influencing change-proneness.  An inclination to change-proneness will enhance teacher competency and creativity if commitment and creativity are associated with a favourable attitude in accepting new strategies put forth by others and which are innovated and initiated by themselves, then the exemplary teacher can easily dart into the minds of individual making reaching hart-to-reach pupils not a myth but a reality and possibility.

The extensive review of related literature pertaining to the two variables teaching competency, teacher adjustment and teacher attitude and their inter-relationship is presented in the preceding pages.  The researchers after a thorough study of the reported past studies, smelt some gaps and deficiencies.

Even though there is lot of research on teaching competency there is much scope for further research.  It is found from the extensive view of related research that many studies are conducted on Teacher Job Satisfaction, but little effort is made to study the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

The opinion of Indian Education Commission (1964-66) that of all the different factors, which influence the quality of education and its contribution to national development, the quality, competence, character and job satisfaction of teachers are undoubtedly the most significant, is the real inspiration behind the present study.  Hence the present study is intended to explore relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness. Definitions of terms used:

          In the present study the present investigator is concerned with Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness and definitions of these constructs are dealt with.

Teacher:

          The term ‘Teacher’ used in this present study is refers to the Teachers working in Primary Schools in Vizianagaram District only.

Teacher Job Satisfaction:

          Teacher Job Satisfaction in this study has been defined as a ‘Job satisfaction’ is an affective attitude – (a) feeling relative like (or) dislike toward something).  Job Satisfaction emerges as an employee gives more and more information about the work place.  So the satisfaction played a vital importance in presenting relationship between the individual teacher and his environment in respect of four dimensions viz., Professional, Teaching Learning, Innovation, Interpersonal relations.  The influence on the Teacher in relations to head of the institute, colleagues and students in the school and his activities, relations and participation in the society aspects are occupied the paramount importance in the present study.

Teacher Change-Proneness:

          The concept of ‘Change-Proneness’ is the congregations effect of curiosity, open mindedness and mental flexibility.  According to Miller (1967) gave the comprehensive nature of the concept – radical change, innovativeness, tendency to inquire, being shrewd and proneness in thought, inquisiteness, all these traits facilitate change-proneness.  In the present concept – Innovativeness refers the new ideas keeping the time to time changing situations; Hesitating nature refers the open mindedness expressing unwillingness or action; Considerations refers the accepting new ideals or actions and implementation of strategies with reference to changes occurred day by day; and Acceptance of help is refers to associate with the individual keeping the changing situations prevailed and possessing their change prone in terms of needs. 

Problem:

          The problems posed in this study are to establish reliability and validity of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness – 

(1) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher Job Satisfaction.

(2) Development of suitable tool to measure the Teacher Change-Proneness.

(3) Finding out the relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

Objectives of the Study:

          Studying the significance of relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction.

          Studying the significance of relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between various demographic variables in respect of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between high and low Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness.

          Studying the significance of difference between high and low Teacher Change-Proneness. in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

Hypotheses:

          Modern investigators are unique agreed that whenever hypothesis possible research come to light that it should be form a hypothesis only.  According to W.Stanely Jevons defined the importance of hypothesis as it serves a sort of guiding light in the world of darkness.  In the words of Deobold D.Van Dalen a hypothesis serves as powerful beacon that lights the research worker.  While Carter V.Good thinks by guiding the investigator the hypothesis serves as the investigators’ ‘eye’ in seeking answers as to tentatively adopted generalization.  While Travers (ed.) discloses that ‘postulates may be considered are fore-runners of laws.  As more and more evidence concerning the validity of postulates is accumulated through to the accepted be called laws.

          In the present study the investigator felt the need of the hypotheses to be framed before pursuing the study as they act as the beacon lights, which illuminate the part of research area and facilitate the investigator to pass on through turbulent walkers.  Accordingly the investigator has proposed the following hypotheses for testing the tools with reference to the above objectives.

Major Hypotheses:

(1)     There is no significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

(2)     There is no significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction.

(3)     There is no significant relationship between various dimensions of Teacher Change-Proneness.

(4)     There is no significance of inter and intra relationship between the dimensions of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

(5)     There is no significant difference between Low ad High groups of Teacher Job Satisfaction in relation to Teacher Change-Proneness.

(6)     There is no significant difference between Low and High groups of Teacher Change-Proneness in relation to Teacher Job Satisfaction.

Subsidiary Hypotheses:

(7)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Sex into consideration.

(8)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Locality into consideration.

(9)     There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Age into consideration.

(10)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Marital status into consideration.

(11)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Qualification into consideration.

(12)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Experience into consideration.

(13)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Medium of Instruction into consideration.

(14)  There is no significant difference between the Teachers in their Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness taking the Type of Management into consideration.

Procedure:

          In order to test the hypotheses the investigator is planned and executed in four phases.

          In the first phase is developing and standardization of Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness self-rating scales.

          In the second phase is measuring the Teachers’ opinionnaire with the help of above two self-rating scales.

          In the third phase is using appropriate statistical procedure is adopted to find out the significant relationship between Teacher Job Satisfaction and Teacher Change-Proneness.

          In the fourth phase using appropriate statistical procedures is adopted to find out the significance of difference between the different demographic variabl


Source by NVS.Suryanarayana, Luciana.M.Z

What Wizard Magazine Entails

The wizard magazine is an information magazine, where you go if you are interested in knowing how much certain comics cost. The Magazine features all kinds of comics and cartoon characters you might be interested in such as the DC comic collections as well as the Marvel comic collection, and not forgetting the Japanese made comic collections which are known as Anime and Manga series.

The wizard provides you with all the information a normal store does, only difference is that the magazine is also online and provides more than just pricing, it also gives you a full history on the comic you may want as well as electronic price listings. The magazine is part of the Wizard Entertainment group which prints the magazine on a monthly basis as well as tells you how to get valuable or collector able comics and also gives you the latest news on what new releases are out or when they will be coming out.

Created in 1991 by Gareb Shamus, the Wizard magazine has gone on from being just a newsletter that told people what was the best buy in Gareb’s parent’s comic store to becoming the most sought after magazine to give you the top ten list of what comics to buy, where you can get them, top writers as well as now it also includes more than comic but also novels and much more. If you are looking for a magazine that will deliver not only in being reasonable cheap for someone to buy but also in giving you the right pricing, righteous buys and of course the right place to find those collector comics and their pricing then the Wizard magazine is just what you need.



Source by Peter Gitundu

The Birth And Rise Of Marvel Comics Ultimate Line

What does a comic publishing company do when their continuity is convoluted and they need to reinvigorate their main lines and gain new readers and interest for their characters all over again, but they don’t want to change the regular line? Create a new line of course! And thus marvel comics ultimate line was conceived and implemented, and has enjoyed monumental success.

Launched in the year 2000 with one title, Ultimate Spider-Man, marvel comics ultimate line intended to take marvel’s most popular characters back to day one and reimagine them to attract new readers to the fold. In doing so, they updated events and colloquialisms and slang, and so forth to be more accessible to readers today. A year later, two more books in the marvel comics ultimate line were launched, Ultimate X-Men and The Ultimates, the marvel comics ultimate line version of the Avengers. Not too long after those came the first family of marvel comics ultimate line with the Ultimate Fantastic Four.

Not wanting to grow too fast, aside from the occasional team-up book, marvel comics ultimate line was restricted to these four books, which encompassed the main four properties at marvel. Some of the books were darker, more realistic and more mature, like The Ultimates, while others were more kid-friendly and fun, like Ultimate Spider-Man. In fact, the popularity of Ultimate Spider-Man is what rocketed marvel comics ultimate line to critical acclaim. After years of lackluster Spider-Man titles in the main marvel universe (referred to as the 616), this new book brought back the fun and innocence of the character that everyone originally fell in love with back in the 70s. And with the superstar creative team of Brian Michael Bendis and Mark Bagley, who worked on the book together for over 100 consecutive issues, the book couldn’t go wrong.

Though the Ultimates was plagued with lateness, the other books continued on and readers continued to flock to the new marvel comics ultimate line. It was here that they found the kinds of stories that they longed for in the 616. Overnight, the marvel comics ultimate line had breathed new life into marvel characters and interest for them. It also showed marvel what fans wanted, and though it hasn’t always been carried over, some of that same creativity has been applied to the 616 in hopes (to some degree of success) that it too would be reinvigorated and gain new interest.

Most recently, the marvel comics ultimate line has seen the seeds planted for its first major crossover. Eight years in the making, the marvel comics ultimate line has come into its own and has stolen the hearts of readers from young to old.



Source by Virgil Storyteller

What Does It Mean To Choose Success – An In-Depth Look

So what does it actually mean to “Choose Success”?  That is something that one hears about a lot in the business, entrepreneur world.  But really, what does it mean?  What people talk about when they say that is simply this…

You sit down with yourself and you have the conversation with yourself about what it is that you truly want in life.  All the different things and the person that you want to become.  Then you make the choice to choose success meaning that commit to doing anything and everything that you can to achieve the goal or goals that you want. 

That is really is.  It’s about you looking inside of yourself and asking yourself the tough questions.  Then you commit and you act on that commitment. 

See there are a lot of people that say that they have chosen to create success but they really are not committed to becoming successful, there is something that is stopping them.  Being really committed means that you will do anything and everything to achieve the success. 

Choice is something that we all have and when we finally make that choice and choose success, we are fully committed and once we are actually committed, nothing stops us.  That is the nature of being human. 

So if you really want success, choose success, and then take the actions.  If you do not take the actions, you have not really made that choice and fully committed yourself to your goal or goals.  Commit and take action on those commitments.  That’s really all it is.



Source by Steven Downward